Assessment of Urban Water Supply Services in Axum Town, Tigray Regional State

No Thumbnail Available



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Addis Ababa University


The main objective of this study is to assess the existing urban water supply services of Axum town. Relevant data were gathered from both primary and secondary sources. Major primary data consisted of a questionnaire survey and interviews with the supply service office, prominent citizens and professionals. A sample of 300 households was drawn from all tabias using proportional to size method and respondent HHs were selected using systematic random sampling. Responses of the questionnaires were entered in to SPSS software for analysis. The survey result shows that the water produced only covers 45-59.4 percent of the demand. The distribution of water covers 70 percent of the population and includes private taps, yard taps, public standpipes and water vendors. But the poor quality of water coupled with its inadequacy had encouraged people to use unprotected sources. Hence, piped water only serves 54.9 percent of household consumption purposes. Those who depend on public standpipes need 19 fountains while only few are functional. They consume on average 15 II c/ d when compared to 19.99 II c/ d and 21.66 II c/ d yard tap and private tap consumption respectively. More than half of households get water intermittently. This in tum decreased the duily average consumption to 11 II c/ d, far below the minimum requirement of 20 II c/ d set by Mo WR. The inefficiency also became a cause of price increases to 32 cents per 20 liters from 6 cents and 5 cents for public standpipe and private users at nomwl periods respectively. The study also identified among others, inadequate water, poor water quality, inefficient and unfair distribution and interruption as major causes of water shortage and scarcity. This was due to lack of skill, facilities, finance and coordinated efforts of all concerned stakeholders. The paper recommends interventions to enable the Axum water service office to overcome the problems and contributions expected from all stakeholders, including the community. The points include rehabilitation of wells, introduction of treatment plant, construction of dams to collect surface water, improving water shade management, and construction of additional standpipes, rainwater harvesting, strengthening the capacity of management and coordinating efforts among stakeholders.



Water access;, consumption;, provision;, supply, distribution and coverage Viiti