Microbial Profile, Drug Susceptibility Pattern and Associated Risk factor of Urinary Tract Infection in Intensive Care Unit Patients at Public Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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Addis Abeba University


Background; Healthcare-associated urinary tract infections are one of the most common complications in hospitalized patients particularly in intensive care unit patients. Both bacteria and yeast, are implicated as the etiological agents of urinary tract infections. Objective: To determine the spectrum of the etiology (bacterial and yeast), risk factors, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infections patients admitted in intensive care unit in public Hospitals at Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2020 to December 2020 in Addis Ababa public Hospitals’ intensive care unit patients. By using convenient sampling method a total of 220 patients included. To assess Socio-demographic status and associated risk factors of participant we used a structured questionnaire. Urine specimens were collected from study participant, sent to Ethiopian public health institution for microbiological investigation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The data was analyzed by SPSS software version 23. Results: Out of 220 urine samples 113 (51.4%) were culture positive of which 20.9% was bacteriuria while 19.1% was candiduria and 11.4% by mixed culture. The most common organism isolated was Candida albicans 29 (21.01%) followed by Enterococcus spp and Candida krusei 18 (13.1%) for each. Ampicillin, Ceftriaxone, and Cefotaxime highly resisted by most Gram-negative bacteria. Amikacin, Meropenem and, Imipenem were the most active drugs against Gram-negative bacteria. Penicillin is resisted by Gram-positive bacteria whereas Nitrofurantin best drug of choice for Gram-positive bacteria. Number of admission days in Intensive Care Unit, diabetes millets and Injury found to be risk factors for urinary tract infection. Female sex, and antibiotic use also a predisposing factor for urinary tract infection caused by yeast. Conclusion and Recommendation: The overall prevalence of bacteriuria/ candiduria was 51.4% with high drug resistance of bacterial isolate. This implies that, UTI is a significant problem in different public Hospitals’ intensive care unit patients in Addis Ababa. Thus, Hospitals may need revise their infection prevention practices to prevent the transmission of resistant bacteria in Intensive Care Unit.



Intensive Care Unit, Urinary Tract Infection, Bacteria, Yeast, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia