Impact Assessment of Koshe (ቆሼ) Open Dump Site Leachate on Ground Water Quality, Addis Ababa

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Addis Ababa University


One of the primary threats to the quality of groundwater is thought to be open dump sites. The study focused on Koshe open dump site which is the official active Open dump site for Addis Ababa city. The main purpose of this study was to assess the impact of Koshe open dump site leachate on groundwater quality around the dump site. The study was conducted from November 2022 to May 2023 giving a total of thirty-eight (38) parameters of the six (6) groundwater samples and one (1) leachate sample. Judgment sampling was used for data gathering. Physico-chemical parameters were analyzed at Horticoop Ethiopia (Horticulture) PLC Soil, Water, and Plant Analysis Laboratory. Samples of leachate and groundwater were analyzed to evaluate the impact of leachates on groundwater through the comparison of their physicochemical nature. Groundwater and leachate samples were collected and analyzed for selected water quality parameters and compared to the Ethiopian Water Quality Standard, EPA, and WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality fourth edition WHO. The physicochemical characteristics of the groundwater samples around the Koshe open dump sites indicated high concentrations of Electrical conductivity, Potassium, Iron, Chromium, Lead, Mercury, Total Alkalinity, Nitrate, Phosphate, Cadmium, Bicarbonates, Arsenic, Salinity, Cobalt, and Silicon above the Ethiopian standard, WHO, and EPA thresholds for acceptable drinking water quality. Because of the distance and located on upstream of Koshe, the well located in Ayer Tena high school was all most in all parameters, especially in parameters that indicate the impact of leachate on groundwater quality(Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, Lead, Mercury, molybdenum, nitrate, potassium & phosphate) shown significantly low concentration relative to the other wells. The leachate quality analysis revealed an extensive range of different contaminants that affect groundwater quality. Parameters such as; Electrical conductivity (EC), Total suspended solids (TSS), Turbidity, Total dissolved solids (TDS), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Potassium, Sodium, Iron, Manganese, Lead, Mercury, Total Alkalinity, Chloride, Ammonia, Phosphate, Sodium, Boron, Arsenic, Cobalt, BOD, and COD fall in the red category of Effluent & Solid Waste Disposal Regulations SI6 which is referred to as being a high environmental hazard. According to the National sanitation foundation water quality index (NSFWQI), The Weighted arithmetic index method (WAIM), and The Canadian Council of Ministers' environment water quality index (CCME WQI) analysis of the water quality status of groundwater well samples fall in poor quality and unfit to drink category. Nemerow's pollution index (NPI) analysis indicated that the contributing parameters which are responsible for polluting water quality in all groundwater well samples are Hydrogen ion (pH), Electrical conductivity (EC), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), iron, Phosphate, Molybdenum, Temperature, Bicarbonates, Nitrate, Cadmium, Ammonia, Total Alkalinity, Arsenic, and Mercury. The result of the correlation analysis indicated a strong positive and negative association between parameters at a 0.01 and 0.050 confidence level. The presence of physicochemical parameters such as Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, Lead, Mercury, molybdenum, nitrate, potassium & phosphate in groundwater wells which are located around open dump sites can lead to the conclusion that indicated there is a significant impact of the Koshe dumpsite on the groundwater quality.



Municipal solid waste, open dump site, Groundwater, Leachate, WQI, Pearson Correlation, Nemerow's pollution index (NPI)