Cleaner Production Assessment in Mekanissa Alcohol and Liquor Factory

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Addis Ababa University


Mekanissa Alcohol and Liquor Factory is a branch of National Alcohol and Liquor Factory which uses molasses or technical alcohol as raw material to produce ethanol. The production process consists of five major sections i.e. molasses treatment, fermentation, distillery, liquor and utilities. Raw material and energy utilization efficiencies of all sections are evaluated based on cleaner production manual. Where, cleaner production options were assessed, filtered and evaluated for all sections. In the fiscal year, factory produced alcohol was71.37% of the designed capacity. Overall efficiency of the alcohol production was 81.64%; of which the efficiency of fermentation and distillery were 72% and 97.2% respectively. And it is low compared to expected performance at fermentation and distillation; which is 94.6% and 99% respectively. Average residual sugar in fermentation was 2,252 kg per day. The total absolute alcohol loss per day from the fermentation and distillation were 946.76 and 535.79 liters respectively. Molasses, technical alcohol, and water consumptions per liter of produced alcohol were found to be 4.23 kg, 1.131liters and 15.13liters respectively. Thermal energy and electric energy consumptions per liter of alcohol were found to be 14,635.552 kJ and 1,575.50kJ respectively which are higher than factory standards. Boiler combustion efficiency and thermal efficiency were 82.66% and 71.75% respectively. All boiler energy losses are evaluated; of which, energy loss due to dry flue gas is the maximum one which is 15.69%. There are two heat integrations proposed in this study to conserve energy; one is in molasses treatment section and the other is between boiler and distillery sections. Recovery of heat from dark and white stillages, CO2 recovery, waste water recycling and heat lost recoveries; are proposed to improve resource utilization and reducing environmental pollution.



Cleaner production, fermentation, energy, molasses