Construction Management

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  • Item
    Investigating the Effect of Currency Devaluation on Contractors: A Case Study on Selected Public Building Projects
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-05-01) Haimanot Nibret Mengistu; Wubishet Jekale (PhD)
    The National Bank of Ethiopia devalued Birr by 15% against United States Dollar (USD) in October 2017. Since then, the construction industry in Ethiopia has faced price volatility on construction materials. According to prior studies, the construction industry is influenced by currency devaluation, resulting in high inflation, volatile market pricing, and material shortages. This price increase causes contractors to fail in finishing their projects within the acceptable time and quality boundaries, as well as within the anticipated cost boundary. This delays their progress in every way. However, the extent of the impact on construction projects is not well-understood and needs to be studied more closely. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of currency devaluation on contractors. In particular, this paper aims to determine the effect of currency devaluation on public building projects that were commenced before currency devaluation occurred. It also focuses on contributory trade of works induced by currency devaluation and minimizing the risk of economic loss in construction projects due to currency devaluation for current and future occurrences. Based on a review of literature on the effect of currency devaluation on the Ethiopian construction sector and other countries' currency devaluation issues and measures, a case study research technique was utilized. Secondary data was obtained through document review. Analysis of data demonstrated the impact of the construction project, contributory trade, and strategies that the government should enforce to minimize the risk of devaluation on contractors. The result reviled that the construction cost of four public building projects in Addis Ababa increased by 18.12%, 17.72%, 16.51% and 13.94% because of the price escalation of construction materials tied to the currency devaluation of the Birr. Further, reinforced concrete work, wall and floor finishing work were found contributory to currency devaluation. The study concludes that compensating contractors who work for government projects and were adversely affected by the recent economic legislation adopted by the Government during 2017 to tackle the current crisis and adjusting the value of most contributory trade of works induced by currency devaluation to be increased or decreased based on an index minimizes the risk resulting from currency fluctuation for the future occurrence. On this basis, the government of Ethiopia should pass decisions that allow contracts to be increased or decreased, based on a price index. Keywords: Currency Devaluation, Construction Materials, Construction Industry
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    A Study of Alternative Wall Making Materials Selection Using Ahp Method
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06-01) Behailu Workneh Tolu; Denamo Addissie (PhD)
    Material selection is a complex and delicate task determined by the vast number of building material options. Likewise, multiple factors are often considered by the architect or building designer when evaluating the various categories of building materials. As a result, these sets of factors or variables often present tradeoffs that further complicate the decision-making process. To ease the material-selection process, this study examines the relevant factors or variables needed to develop a systematic and efficient material-selection system. Through the analysis of frequency data and results of the study, it has identified the potential factors that will impact designers’ decisions in their choice of wall making alternative building materials, during the design-decision making process. The application of the criteria for the quantitative evaluation and selection of the best alternative building material, using the analytic hierarchy process model, are discussed. The developed decision support system assist designers to assess their consequences in terms of whether or not a material option is likely to be best chosen over the existing conditions. The study also investigates the existing situations in the application of alternative wall making building materials. It assesses the current materials which are being used as a wall making alternative building materials, the extent of usage and barriers to use these materials. Keywords: decision making process; factors or variables; selection criteria; alternative building materials; selection framework; analytical hierarchy process (AHP)
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    Developing Built-Asset Maintenance Maturity Rating Model for Public University Buildings in Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06-01) Zewdu Seblework Tafesse; Asregedew Kassa Woldesenbet ( PhD)
    In Ethiopia, a significant amount of funds is invested in mega projects like dams, highways, railways, airports, power plants, public buildings, etc. These investments are showing unprecedented expansion which, by some estimates, has shown a 9-fold growth of the GDP of the construction sector. However, once these projects, be it mega or otherwise, are completed and ownership is transferred, the post-construction phase of asset management is noticeably neglected, if not ignored totally. And this national reality is witnessed in the building facilities of public universities in the country. In this research paper, a modest attempt is made to examine the building maintenance practice of the nation, factors affecting proper maintenance management, and challenges faced. A thorough investigation of the current situation of building facilities of public universities in Addis Ababa is made. Along with that significant focus is made to develop a viable maturity rating model for building maintenance management of public universities in Ethiopia. A multi-case study was conducted on the three public universities in Addis Ababa. The research approach of this study is both deductive and inductive research. Both quantitative and qualitative data are collected from primary and secondary data sources by document analysis, observation, and semi-structured interviews of the FM office and project office representatives of each public university. All the semi-structured interviews, document analysis, and observation data were analyzed using the thematic and statistical analysis method. The three main objectives of this study are effectively addressed. When it comes to identifying factors that influence the proper practice of building maintenance management in public universities in Ethiopia, the main factors were grouped under seven categories and five critical factors. Finally, a built asset maturity rating model is proposed based on the weights calculated by DEMATEL, MCDM analysis weights that can be used as a self-assessment tool by public universities in Ethiopia. Keywords: Facility Management, Built Asset, Maintenance, Maturity Rating Model, DEMATEL
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    Developing BIM-Enabled Built Asset Facility Information Management System: A Case of Public Universities in Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06-01) Tamiru Mengst Habtu; Asregedew Kassa Woldesenbet (PhD)
    Facilities management (FM) is a discipline comprising various processes, activities and maintenance services to support the main functions of built asset facilities. It demands sets of comprehensive information. Lack of information is one of the major challenges in the O & M phase of the built asset. The emergence of Building Information Modelling (BIM) systems, helped to solve the issue and improve the efficiency of built asset facilities management. Currently, the public universities have no data/information and related documents on the built asset facilities. The built asset facilities information management system is conventional and has a major difficulty. Therefore, it is necessary to study BIM-Enabled Built Asset Facility Information Management System. This study aims to explore the current practice of built asset facility information management systems in public universities and identify the required information for BIM-enabled built asset management. The importance of identifying the required information is to facilitate the FM decision-making process. Finally, this study aims to develop the conceptual framework of a BIM-enabled built asset facilities information management system. The study adopted both descriptive and exploratory types of research. A multiple-case study was conducted on the three public universities in Addis Ababa. Data collection and analysis were based on an extensive literature review of similar studies followed by a semi-structured interview, document analysis, and observation. The study adopted both quantitative and qualitative methods. All interview, document analysis, and observation data were analyzed using the thematic and statistical analysis method. The study findings indicated that the FM office in public universities didn’t have the data or information of the old built asset facilities but to some extent, they have as-built drawings for recently completed projects. So, the lack of information has an impact on the time and the cost of the O & M process of the built asset. The FM office practiced the conventional method to capture, visualize, transfer and manage the built asset information. Currently, all the basic, technical, managerial, commercial, financial, and legal information are extremely relevant for built asset management in the selected public universities. Accordingly, to manage the built asset information, the FM office in public universities needs a single platform. As a result, a BIM-enabled FM conceptual framework was proposed. Finally, the future study should further develop the proposed framework and adopt it in public universities. Keywords: FM, Built asset, BIM, BIM-FM Integration, Information requirement, information management system, Asset Information Modeling (AIM).
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    The Practice of Building Demolition in Addis Ababa City: Current Practice Assessment and Regulatory Framework Development
    (Addis Ababa Universty, 2022-06-01) Tirufat Mekuria; Denamo Addissie (PhD)
    The Addis Ababa city Administration has been demolishing old buildings and clearing up slum areas for urban renewal purpose for quite some time now. This is being carried out either as part of a government development plan or due to strong interest of foreign investors to participate in the housing and hospitality sector. In addition, increased value of land invited local private property owners to upgrade existing structures in to more income generating spaces aiming at maximizing benefits. However, the practice is not coping up with the technological advancements in the area; rather it is highly dependent on the experience and skill of individuals involved. The fact that Ethiopia doesn’t have a code of practice for building demolition has paved the way for the practice to be performed in non-structured manner. This research started aiming at achieving three objectives; the first being examining the current practice of building demolition in Addis Ababa city. This was done by using selected cases to detect the loop holes through direct observation and interviewing representatives of parties involved in a building demolition project. Furthermore, an in-depth document analysis was done on existing local protocols; ranging from policies to codes and regulations, that can serve as a starting point to develop the framework. As a result, the gaps were analyzed in five major categories related to stakeholders management, planning and methodologies, safety, environment and waste management, productivity and performance recording. The second objective goes on with examining the international trend of the sector through intensive review of literature s so as to derive key performance indicators to evaluate the local practice against later on. For this, it was necessary to benchmark certain countries with best practice, such as Kenya, India, Hong Kong and the Netherlands. Afterwards, standard factors extracted from the study were categorized under generic sections after critical adaptations are made. The third and final objective of this research was to develop a guiding regulatory framework aiming to serve as a milestone point for the regulatory authority. The developed framework describes the main actors of the building demolition ecosystem and states the major responsibility of each entity for the success of the cycle. Finally, it concludes by summarizing the findings of the research in such a way that the practice lacks proper emphasis from the regulatory body in terms of standardizing work items like contracts and safety protocol strictly to follow while performing the act. In addition, qualification of professional is another area which needs big work in order to rescue the system being reliant on personal skill. As far as the recommendation points are concerned, the study suggests for the upper regulatory body to draft a standard code of practice so as to set the minimum requirement of professionals and the other stakeholders. In addition, it was also recommended that regulatory body to have a distinct organ dedicated to keeping the performance record of the sector in order to make future plans and structure demolition acts in more coordinated manner. At last, studies related to waste management and recycling, pattern against city expansion and application of prefabricated elements vs demolition are suggested for further research. Key Words: Building demolition, Construction Industry, Building, Code of practice, Regulatory framework
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    Rule-Based Expert System for Project Delay Management: A Case of Wash Water Supply Construction Projects in Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-07-01) Eden Halefom; Tilahun Derib(PhD)
    In developing countries like Ethiopia, satisfying the access of water supply, sanitation and hygiene to the community is a huge challenge. These challenges are opposed in different sectors by various methods. Among the efforts of United Nations Organization to fulfill this goal includes, setting international plans such as Millennium Development Goal, Supporting countries in financial, human resource, training and infrastructure. Even with all these efforts, access to water supply and sanitation ratio in sub-Saharan Africa is still at its lower rate. Access to water supply and sanitation in Ethiopia is amongst the lowest in Sub-Saharan Africa and the entire world. The major challenge for water supply and hygiene in Ethiopia is to maintain a year-round and adequate supply to meet people‘s need. The purpose of this research is therefore, to develop rule-based expert system for WASH projects delay management in the case of WASH water supply construction projects in Ethiopia. To achieve the expectations of this system, the methodologies followed in this system were knowledge acquisition using structural interview and workshop as one of primary knowledge source. The required data was gathered from sources such as; first identified the list of causes and effect from the different documents and also through workshop with the group of construction management masters students of Addis Ababa university and also finds the delay causes and effects of 15 towns water supply and sanitation project from their technical audit report arranging in the rule-based form or ―if…then‖ form and in the next phase structured interview was employed with selected experts and come with list of probable solutions and causes of delay. Finally rules for delay management was formulated by the rule-based expert system. Domain experts were selected by using purposive sampling techniques from the experienced experts from construction sector and academicians. After the development of knowledge-based system, verification and validation tests were eployed. The study certainly answered the problem of the water sector delay problems because it can identify the cause and solution of the delay regarding the experts view and experiences. As a recommendation additional studies are needed for the rule-based expert system to develop in different soft wares. Key words: Delay management, Expert, Rule based expert system, WASH project , Water
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    Design Management Practices in Building Design Process in the Case of Ethiopian Construction Consultant and Design Engineers
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-08-01) Samson Melesse Mamo; Tadesse Ayalew (PhD)
    In recent times, the construction industry has been under pressure to improve efficiency in terms of quality improvement, timely delivery, and maintaining budget costs. The need for quality design solutions and effective processes has also incited significant emphasis in the industry. This study aimed to assess the design management practice in the building design process for Ethiopian construction consultants and design engineers in Addis Ababa. Accordingly, the study employed a quantitative research design. The study mainly used primary sources of data to collect the necessary information. It used three data collection methods, namely a questionnaire, an interview, and a document review. By employing descriptive statistics, this study found that challenges of design management practice included a lack of a structured and explicit design process and design information production and flow, as well as unimproved design planning, lack of design management tools and techniques and implementation by an inexperienced team. It mostly exhibited unsatisfactory level of design management disciplines, and various barriers included tools poorly deployed into industry practice, deficient resources in quality or quantity, and the inability to have a design checking system. There are also difficulties areas in terms of improvement needs on better managing design process include of having adequate design time increasing specialized design professions, to recognize design is as a process. Thus, the study concluded that these organizations created a low-level design management practice definition that involves setting high-level project milestones or gateways that the team can work towards. Accordingly, this study suggests that organizations must be cultured about the importance of the design process in delivering value to the whole project, how the way they work affects the design process, how they can contribute to the design and consequentially the whole project process. Therefore, implementation of a design management tool or practice must include and educate at all levels within an organizations and project team to ensure it is taken up in practice. Keyword: Design, Management, Practice, Challenges, Issues, Improve efficiency, Timely delivery
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    An Assessment on The Competitiveness of Indigenous Contractor’s In Road Construction Projects (The Case of Federal Roads)
    (Addis Ababa University, 2020-12-01) Zemenu Mersha Mihret; Wubshet Jekale (PhD)
    A competitive contractor is the guarantee of a project’s success with enough capacity and performance on the industry. Therefore, how to choose a competitive contractor is crucial for the clients in the sector. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia has given an emphasis on improving the quality and size of the road network and infrastructure. Concerning this, the Ethiopian Roads Authority (ERA) is one of the assigned institutions by the FDRE as an implementing agency to award and follow up the implementation of the federal road construction projects to be timely and cost-effective as well as to improve the road sector through competent indigenous contractors. However, different literatures and reports shows that the indigenous contractors are not competitive enough in ERA projects. Thus, the road sector of Ethiopia is being dependent on foreign contractors. Consequently, the country faced lack of foreign currency, lack of local job opportunities, lack of competitive local contractors, and the increment of construction cost & time and quality decrement. Therefore, the study assessed the extent of competitiveness and identified critical affecting factors. Finally, it indicates the improvement mechanisms of competitiveness for indigenous contractors which participate in ERA projects. To achieve this, the research used survey and case study research strategy with mixed approach analysis method. The source of data used for the analysis were collected from respondent documents through questionnaire survey and document review from G-1 contractor’s and ERA. Thus, 97 ICB during tender and 104 projects during actual implementation were used for analyzing the competitiveness extent of indigenous contractors. Therefore, the average competitiveness extent of indigenous contractors was 46.07% in terms of value of projects awarded whereas in terms of actual performance were 52.4%. To select the most critical indigenous contractor competitiveness affecting factors, 37 factors were identified. Among these, the identified and prioritized 12 factors are cash flow management, experience, annual turn over, shortage of finance, time planning & management, capacity of human resource, plant and equipment, price increment, crew productivity, project scope, inappropriate price offer and material availability. And also, to find competitiveness improvement mechanisms, 21 factors were identified. From these, the identified 9 improvement mechanisms are continuous capacity building, suitable government policy, efficient use of advance payment, adequate funding, utilizing foreign contractors’ best practice, competent project manager, well-defined work plan, utilizing latest technology and utilizing joint venture approach. The research further provides recommendations under what circumstances the competitiveness of indigenous contractor’s will be sustainably to Federal road construction projects. Keyword: Competitiveness, Indigenous Contractor’s, ERA, Road Construction
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    A Study on Improving Project Delivery Method Selection Criteria Practice on Ethiopian Road Authority
    (Addis Ababa University, 2020-09-01) Edlawit Teka; Wubishet Jekale (PhD)
    Construction industry in Ethiopia is one of the fast growing industries with significant share in the GDP. It has an important contribution to the economy which involves various infrastructure developments. One of the major infrastructure elements is the road sector. Ethiopian Road authority has a long history in providing road infrastructure primarily in the country. A project delivery method (PDM) is a framework that determines the relationship and responsibilities of client, contractor and consultant. The decision to select delivery method should be based on a systematic approach that includes all available PDMs. The project under the Ethiopian Roads Authority ERA, continue to face great challenges when it comes to delivering projects by selecting the most appropriate DM for its projects. The general practice in this institution is largely depends on culture of the ERA board’ reliance on their familiarity and experience with a particular method. With this background, this study provides a comprehensive solution for this challenges of ERA. 27 criterions under four group of delivery method selection criteria are identified in this research effort. The criteria are identified through questionnaire survey from client, consultant and contractor perspectives. The result is analysed using Relative Importance Index(RII). Project actual challenges are thoroughly discussed based on 22 selected case study projects that are completed under RSDP IV and RSDP V. The analysis clarifies main challenges of ERA’s projects. The major challenges identified are: Right of way, variation orders, scope change, design change and adverse weather conditions. A sufficient set of critical issues are defined in this study and advantages/disadvantages of each delivery method is thoroughly studied with respect to the issues concentrating on the effects of PDM option on the project challenges. The study covers both the available PDMs (i.e. Design-Bid-Build (DBB), Design Build (DB). The model for selecting appropriate delivery method is developed using Multi-attribute decision tools to select a PDM in this research for case study projects. The model was verified using case study project. The model provides useful information and introduces the advantages and limitations of each PDM to the decision makers. an essential well-structured decision making process is embedded in the proposed framework of this study as a result of the analysis that is reliable and sufficient to solve the problem of selecting an appropriate PDM. Key word: - Delivery method selection criteria, project challenges, Multi Attribute Utility Theory
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    Investigating the Effect of Currency Devaluation on Contractors: A Case Study on Selected Public Building Projects
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-05-01) Haimanot Nibret Mengistu; Wubishet Jekale (PhD)
    The National Bank of Ethiopia devalued Birr by 15% against United States Dollar (USD) in October 2017. Since then, the construction industry in Ethiopia has faced price volatility on construction materials. According to prior studies, the construction industry is influenced by currency devaluation, resulting in high inflation, volatile market pricing, and material shortages. This price increase causes contractors to fail in finishing their projects within the acceptable time and quality boundaries, as well as within the anticipated cost boundary. This delays their progress in every way. However, the extent of the impact on construction projects is not well-understood and needs to be studied more closely. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of currency devaluation on contractors. In particular, this paper aims to determine the effect of currency devaluation on public building projects that were commenced before currency devaluation occurred. It also focuses on contributory trade of works induced by currency devaluation and minimizing the risk of economic loss in construction projects due to currency devaluation for current and future occurrences. Based on a review of literature on the effect of currency devaluation on the Ethiopian construction sector and other countries' currency devaluation issues and measures, a case study research technique was utilized. Secondary data was obtained through document review. Analysis of data demonstrated the impact of the construction project, contributory trade, and strategies that the government should enforce to minimize the risk of devaluation on contractors. The result reviled that the construction cost of four public building projects in Addis Ababa increased by 18.12%, 17.72%, 16.51% and 13.94% because of the price escalation of construction materials tied to the currency devaluation of the Birr. Further, reinforced concrete work, wall and floor finishing work were found contributory to currency devaluation. The study concludes that compensating contractors who work for government projects and were adversely affected by the recent economic legislation adopted by the Government during 2017 to tackle the current crisis and adjusting the value of most contributory trade of works induced by currency devaluation to be increased or decreased based on an index minimizes the risk resulting from currency fluctuation for the future occurrence. On this basis, the government of Ethiopia should pass decisions that allow contracts to be increased or decreased, based on a price index. Keywords: Currency Devaluation, Construction Materials, Construction Industry
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    Developing Built-Asset Maintenance Maturity Rating Model for Public University Buildings In Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06-01) Zewdu Seblework Tafesse; Tadesse Ayalew (PhD)
    In Ethiopia, a significant amount of funds is invested in mega projects like dams, highways, railways, airports, power plants, public buildings, etc. These investments are showing unprecedented expansion which, by some estimates, has shown a 9-fold growth of the GDP of the construction sector. However, once these projects, be it mega or otherwise, are completed and ownership is transferred, the post-construction phase of asset management is noticeably neglected, if not ignored totally. And this national reality is witnessed in the building facilities of public universities in the country. In this research paper, a modest attempt is made to examine the building maintenance practice of the nation, factors affecting proper maintenance management, and challenges faced. A thorough investigation of the current situation of building facilities of public universities in Addis Ababa is made. Along with that significant focus is made to develop a viable maturity rating model for building maintenance management of public universities in Ethiopia. A multi-case study was conducted on the three public universities in Addis Ababa. The research approach of this study is both deductive and inductive research. Both quantitative and qualitative data are collected from primary and secondary data sources by document analysis, observation, and semi-structured interviews of the FM office and project office representatives of each public university. All the semi-structured interviews, document analysis, and observation data were analyzed using the thematic and statistical analysis method. The three main objectives of this study are effectively addressed. When it comes to identifying factors that influence the proper practice of building maintenance management in public universities in Ethiopia, the main factors were grouped under seven categories and five critical factors. Finally, a built asset maturity rating model is proposed based on the weights calculated by DEMATEL, MCDM analysis weights that can be used as a self-assessment tool by public universities in Ethiopia. Keywords: Facility Management, Built Asset, Maintenance, Maturity Rating Model, DEMATEL
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    The Practice of Building Demolition In Addis Ababa City: Current Practice Assessment and Regulatory Framework Development
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06-01) Tirufat Mekuria; Denamo Addissie (PhD)
    The Addis Ababa city Administration has been demolishing old buildings and clearing up slum areas for urban renewal purpose for quite some time now. This is being carried out either as part of a government development plan or due to strong interest of foreign investors to participate in the housing and hospitality sector. In addition, increased value of land invited local private property owners to upgrade existing structures in to more income generating spaces aiming at maximizing benefits. However, the practice is not coping up with the technological advancements in the area; rather it is highly dependent on the experience and skill of individuals involved. The fact that Ethiopia doesn’t have a code of practice for building demolition has paved the way for the practice to be performed in non-structured manner. This research started aiming at achieving three objectives; the first being examining the current practice of building demolition in Addis Ababa city. This was done by using selected cases to detect the loop holes through direct observation and interviewing representatives of parties involved in a building demolition project. Furthermore, an in-depth document analysis was done on existing local protocols; ranging from policies to codes and regulations, that can serve as a starting point to develop the framework. As a result, the gaps were analyzed in five major categories related to stakeholders management, planning and methodologies, safety, environment and waste management, productivity and performance recording. The second objective goes on with examining the international trend of the sector through intensive review of literatures so as to derive key performance indicators to evaluate the local practice against later on. For this, it was necessary to benchmark certain countries with best practice, such as Kenya, India, Hong Kong and the Netherlands. Afterwards, standard factors extracted from the study were categorized under generic sections after critical adaptations are made. The third and final objective of this research was to develop a guiding regulatory framework aiming to serve as a milestone point for the regulatory authority. The developed framework describes the main actors of the building demolition ecosystem and states the major responsibility of each entity for the success of the cycle. Finally, it concludes by summarizing the findings of the research in such a way that the practice lacks proper emphasis from the regulatory body in terms of standardizing work items like contracts and safety protocol strictly to follow while performing the act. In addition, qualification of professional is another area which needs big work in order to rescue the system being reliant on personal skill. As far as the recommendation points are concerned, the study suggests for the upper regulatory body to draft a standard code of practice so as to set the minimum requirement of professionals and the other stakeholders. In addition, it was also recommended that regulatory body to have a distinct organ dedicated to keeping the performance record of the sector in order to make future plans and structure demolition acts in more coordinated manner. At last, studies related to waste management and recycling, pattern against city expansion and application of prefabricated elements vs demolition are suggested for further research. Key Words: Building demolition, Construction Industry, Building, Code of practice, Regulatory framework
  • Item
    A Study of Alternative Wall Making Materials Selection Using Ahp Method
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06-01) Behailu Workneh Tolu; Denamo Addissie (PHD)
    Material selection is a complex and delicate task determined by the vast number of building material options. Likewise, multiple factors are often considered by the architect or building designer when evaluating the various categories of building materials. As a result, these sets of factors or variables often present tradeoffs that further complicate the decision-making process. To ease the material-selection process, this study examines the relevant factors or variables needed to develop a systematic and efficient material-selection system. Through the analysis of frequency data and results of the study, it has identified the potential factors that will impact designers’ decisions in their choice of wall making alternative building materials, during the design-decision making process. The application of the criteria for the quantitative evaluation and selection of the best alternative building material, using the analytic hierarchy process model, are discussed. The developed decision support system assist designers to assess their consequences in terms of whether or not a material option is likely to be best chosen over the existing conditions. The study also investigates the existing situations in the application of alternative wall making building materials. It assesses the current materials which are being used as a wall making alternative building materials, the extent of usage and barriers to use these materials. Keywords: decision making process; factors or variables; selection criteria; alternative building materials; selection framework; analytical hierarchy process (AHP)
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    Developing BIM-Enabled Built Asset Facility Information Management System: A Case of Public Universities In Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06-01) Tamiru Mengst Habtu; Asregedew Kassa Woldesenbet (PhD)
    Facilities management (FM) is a discipline comprising various processes, activities and maintenance services to support the main functions of built asset facilities. It demands sets of comprehensive information. Lack of information is one of the major challenges in the O & M phase of the built asset. The emergence of Building Information Modelling (BIM) systems, helped to solve the issue and improve the efficiency of built asset facilities management. Currently, the public universities have no data/information and related documents on the built asset facilities. The built asset facilities information management system is conventional and has a major difficulty. Therefore, it is necessary to study BIM Enabled Built Asset Facility Information Management System. This study aims to explore the current practice of built asset facility information management systems in public universities and identify the required information for BIM-enabled built asset management. The importance of identifying the required information is to facilitate the FM decision-making process. Finally, this study aims to develop the conceptual framework of a BIM-enabled built asset facilities information management system. The study adopted both descriptive and exploratory types of research. A multiple-case study was conducted on the three public universities in Addis Ababa. Data collection and analysis were based on an extensive literature review of similar studies followed by a semi structured interview, document analysis, and observation. The study adopted both quantitative and qualitative methods. All interview, document analysis, and observation data were analyzed using the thematic and statistical analysis method. The study findings indicated that the FM office in public universities didn’t have the data or information of the old built asset facilities but to some extent, they have as-built drawings for recently completed projects. So, the lack of information has an impact on the time and the cost of the O & M process of the built asset. The FM office practiced the conventional method to capture, visualize, transfer and manage the built asset information. Currently, all the basic, technical, managerial, commercial, financial, and legal information are extremely relevant for built asset management in the selected public universities. Accordingly, to manage the built asset information, the FM office in public universities needs a single platform. As a result, a BIM-enabled FM conceptual framework was proposed. Finally, the future study should further develop the proposed framework and adopt it in public universities. Keywords: FM, Built asset, BIM, BIM-FM Integration, Information requirement, information management system, Asset Information Modeling (AIM).
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    Industrialized Building System for Provision of Mass Houses: Critical Success Factors and Potential Advantages In the Case of Precast Concrete System In Addis Ababa
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-06-01) Henok Sime; Denamo AddissieI (PhD)
    Industrialized Building System is defined as a construction method and development approach in which components are fabricated on or off site, transported, and assembled with minimal additional work on site. Industrialized Building System (IBS) is an engineering innovation to prevent most compelling impediments of ordinary strategies of development in order to boost project performance. The system has a significant potential that can be harnessed if utilized for projects like mass housing. An in-depth understanding of IBS and investigating those success factors is inevitably very important prior to adopting IBS technique as a construction technique Addis Ababa where delivering housing is one of the most critical performances challenges for city administration and one of the top priorities for the city residents. Responding to the challenge and in recognition to the potential advantages of IBS construction technique, the research presents ranked list of potential advantages of IBS construction technique and prioritized rank of critical success factors that affect a successful implementation for mass housing project in terms of their influence on implementation. The first phase of the research cover an in-depth and systematic review of literature resources that produce 8 critical success factors that directly influences implementation and further expanded into 31 sub-factors, further 5 potential advantages of IBS were identified.Survey research methodology used in second phase of the research where questionnaires and interview survey study is carried out and Analytic Hierarchy Process analysis method is used to prioritize identified critical success factors. The finding rank cost factors first as the most critical factor for IBS implementation followed by knowledge and skill factors. Government policies and regulations factors ranked third, technology factor fourth, supply chain and market factor ranked fifth and management factors at sixth. Production and logistics factors ranked seventh and an integration factor is ranked eighth. Whereas cost efficiency and speed of construction ranked first and second, reduction of waste and quality ranked third and fourth were as construction safety ranked fifth as a potential advantage of IBS. In line with the findings the research recommends the housing construction industry change its conventional on-site approach to IBS construction method, and for a successful implementation respective stakeholders need to play more roles unlocking the critical success factors such as financial incentives, knowledge and skill development and setting regulation and standard to streamline the IBS implementation in housing project life cycle. KEY WORDS: Industrialized Building System, Critical Success Factor, Precast Concrete, Mass Housing
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    A study on Improving Price Adjustment Administration in Federal Road Projects
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-06-01) Simreteab Gebremedhin; Wubishet Jekale (PhD. Eng.)
    The degree of price variations referring to each specific type of construction shall be measured by specific price indices, in order to achieve more accurate results. In Ethiopian Road Authority, Price Index is commonly used for price adjustment administration in the escalation of road construction costs. This study aims to improve price adjustment administration in federal road projects. The objectives of the study report in this thesis are assessing current price indices determination practice when original source cease to publish indices, assessing reliable sources to minimize ceasing of publishing indices and developing guideline for price adjustment administration system when supplier cease to exist and replaced by new source. This research covered, the studies on improving price adjustment administration in federal road projects. Moreover, price adjustment administration when suppliers cease to published price indices were analyzed by trend, T-tests and regression analysis techniques, to obtain models to predict the future values of the new sources of indices, which was a way enabling the prediction of the future indices of a price adjustment in federal road projects. Using a detailed literature review, a quantitative data collection approach, data was collected from Ethiopian Road Authority payment certificates, to see the trend of price adjustments of key construction cost inputs (cement, bitumen, fuel and steel), National Bank of Ethiopia’s website (currency exchange ETB to USD) and different local and international road construction material suppliers’ websites. In this thesis, some descriptive statistical methods have been used for the analysis of Three DB case study projects that are completed under RSDP IV. The projects are Chole magna, Dire Dawa- Dewelle and Pawi-Junction. The result is analysed using trend, T-test and regression analysis methods. The analysis resulted that, NOC should be used as a new source for Chole magna and Dire Dawa-Dewelle projects. Producer Price Index (PPI); Petroleum from Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) U.S should be used for Pawi Junction-Fendkia-Ayma project. Finally, based on the analysis of the results, this research developed guideline to enable professionals to determine the new source of index using a common guideline and help to create common understanding.
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    Comparative Construction Cost Analysis of Selected Design -Bid-Build and Design -Build Road Projects in Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2020-11-01) Muluken Shibru; Solomon Sertse(PhD)
    Design-bid-build (DBB) and Design-build (DB) are the two common Project Delivery Systems (PDSs) that have been used widely in the international and local construction industry. For DB projects, during tendering, unlike the DBB’s contractor, the responsive design-builder offers a lump-sum amount using incomplete detailed engineering design. Although the DB PDS provides better cost certainty, that certainty may come at a higher premium as compared to DBB. This is because the design-builder allocates a certain risk factor to compensate for the design risk as well as for the lack of information to estimate the work quantities. Previous studies have demonstrated the cost certainty in favor of DB projects than DBB; however, it lacks to examine the amount of risk that comes with cost certainty. To fill this gap, this research undertakes a cost comparison between road projects delivered through the DBB and DB PDS using their cost-per-kilometer. It involves seven road projects (three DBB and four DB projects) tendered by the Ethiopian Roads Authority (ERA) from 2009 to 2017. It used a holistic multiple-case study design, primary sources of data, and document analysis. After ensuring the similarity between the projects, the DB’s bill quantities for selected pay items were multiplied by the corresponding nearby and similar DBB’s bill item-unit rates. The first, second, third, and fourth case analysis shows that DB projects exhibit a higher cost-per-kilometer and they are found to be 12.7%, 17.1%, 11.6%, and 13.5% costly than DBB projects respectively. Therefore, DB PDS can increase the project cost on average by 13.7% than the DBB PDS. This is also expected from the theoretical justification that, due to the lack of detailed information, the design-builder can be argued to include higher markup for possible risks. As a result, unless the project has a high state of urgency, the DBB PDS is the better option than DB PDS from a static cost performance perspective for the ERA context.
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    Innovative Tendering Practice: E - Tendering Applicability for the Procurement of Ethiopian Federal Road Construction Projects
    (Addis Ababa University, 2021-08-01) Hilina Belachew Demisse; Denamo Addissie (PhD)
    Construction procurement is considered to be one of the most critical stages throughout the lifecycle of construction projects. However, bidding practice which is one of the steps in procurement is identified as one of the major shortcomings of the Ethiopian construction industry. The fact that the current Ethiopian construction tendering practice is paper-based has several drawbacks like human errors in document production, poor audit trail, access problems, security concerns, insufficient copies, and time-consuming being the major ones. This paper analyses the current practice of paper-based tendering in road construction projects along with its challenges & how it can be improved via e- tendering implementation. To answer these questions, the perception & experience of tendering professionals involved in the road construction projects was assessed via a questionnaire & interview survey. Few e-tendering practitioners were also interviewed about their experience while implementing the system. Accordingly, the result showed that e-tendering was perceived to be advantageous and would improve the time, cost, communication, documentation, tender evaluation, resource consumption, and transparency of the tendering process. However, the result also revealed many factors related to management, organization, environment, & technology that may hinder the implementation of the system. Thus, due to the potential benefits of e-tendering highlighted in this paper, it requires more attention from the government & the procuring entities for its greater expansion & adoption to ultimately contribute to the growth of the country‟s economy. Accordingly, findings from the literature review, survey, and document review were finally incorporated in the conceptual framework developed for e-tendering implementation in the study area. The framework was validated using a focus group discussion & a semi- structured interview with tendering professionals engaged in the study area and amendments were made accordingly. Its clarity, comprehensiveness, relevance, simplicity, & future applicability was also assured via the questionnaires developed.
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    Potential and Limitation of Private Rental Housing: The case of rental houses developed by Loza and Birhanu construction plc, Ayer Tena, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    (Addis Ababa University, 2022-04-01) Biruk Dereje Terefe; mam Mahmoud Hassen
    The housing delivery mechanism in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia is very few and one of the delivery options is rental housing. But only the public rental housing and kebele houses are considered as an option and neglects the private rental housing for decades, the sector rental housing cover more than 55 % including both public and private rental housing stock. From the 55% of rental housing 37% is the share of private rental housing sector that means more than the half of the market. but the government didn’t consider the sector as a significant option for housing development and focused only policies which promote home ownership led by government which is unrealistic and un affordable means of housing delivery. This study examined and assessed private rental housing developer as a viable option for housing development and search the potentials and limitation for developing the sector as one of housing delivery strategies for the future. And it focuses on private rental housing developer and houses constructed by Loza and Birhanu Construction plc. The research used case study method for in depth analysis of the sector; the cases are selected only houses constructed by LBC. Plc. And the data were collected using questionnaires, interview, and analysis of documents and related literatures. The end result and findings revealed that private rental housing sector has a positive impact on the housing delivery mechanisms. Furthermore, private rental housing provision strategies needs a policy support by government and appropriate revision on the housing delivery approaches including some policy instruments focused on rental houses developed by private sector.