Assessment of Change in Nutritional Status and its Clinical Outcomes among Adult Patients in Mizan-Tepi University Teaching Hospital Southwest Ethiopia: A Prospective Cohort Study

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Addis Abeba University


Background: Large proportions of patients in the hospital are malnourished. Around 30% to 50% of patients show the risk of malnutrition at admission and many of these patients experience further nutritional decline during a hospital stay. Malnutrition among hospitalized patients has strong clinical effects that are reflected by an increased risk of medical complications, increased length of stay and poor quality of life among adult patients. Objective: To examine the patterns of nutritional status over time in adult patients and its association with the occurrence of complication and length of stay in hospital in Mizan-Tepi University Teaching Hospital Southwest, Ethiopia 2020. Methods: Hospital-based prospective observational study involving 258 medical, surgical, and gynecologic wards admitted adult patients, aged from 18-64 years was conducted in Mizan-Tepi University teaching hospital from March 1, 2020 – May 30, 2020. Patient’s nutritional status was assessed within 24 h using the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) at admission and before discharge. Chi-square and student t-test was used to identify the statistical difference between groups of nutrition change category and outcome variables. Logistic regression models were used to identify the predictors of decline nutritional status. Statistical significance of 0.05 was used in all hypothesis tests. Results: On admission, a total of 258 patients were included, of these 166 patients had stayed greater than five days in the hospital and measured both subjective global assessment (SGA) at admission and discharge. The majority of participants were (66.9%) female. the median age was 45. The median length of stay in the study population was 10 days (8, 12). Around 75% were malnourished at admission (SGA B/C) and 61% were malnourished at discharge. Overall 31% (n=52) improved, and 19% (n=31) declined nutritionally from admission to discharge. Odds of occurrence of complications were significantly greater (OR=2.274, 95%CI, 1.052, 4.915) longer length of stay (12 days) for declined in nutritionally as compared and well-nourished patients. Conclusions: In our study, 19% of patients declined their nutritional status during hospitalization. Indicating a need to monitor nutritional status before discharge and implementation of appropriate nutrition interventions to improve patients’ clinical outcomes is mandatory in a clinical setting.



Adult: Nutritional status: Hospital malnutrition