Predictors of cervical cancer screening practice among hiv-positive women attending adult antiretroviral clinics, Bishoftu, Ethiopia: the application of health belief model

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Addis Ababa Universty


Background: Cervical cancer is a global public health problem. In Ethiopia, it is the second most common cancer causing morbidity and mortality. Few available evidences revealed that despite distribution and severity of cervical cancer among HIV-positive women and the ease at which it could be prevented, cervical cancer screening practice in Ethiopia among HIV positive women is considerably low. Therefore this study aims to assess predictors of cervical cancer screening practice among HIV positive women by applying health belief model concepts. Method: Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted at health facilities in Bishoftu. Data were collected from 475 women who came to health facilities for antiretroviral services. Iinterviewer administered questionnaires were employed to collect data. Frequencies, proportion, measures of central tendency and dispersion were used to describe findings. Independent sample t-test was used to determine whether mean differences existed between perceptions of HIV-positive women who had ever screened and never screened for cervical cancer. Crude odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were considered to measure associations for each variable with the cervical cancer screening practice. Multivariable logistic regression was run to identify predictors of cervical cancer screening practice by controlling possible confounders. Result: Cervical cancer screening practice among HIV-positive women in this study was 25%. Health proffesionals were the main source of information about cervical cancer and its screening. There was a difference between the ever and never screened groups in mean scores of their perceived severity, perceived benefit, perceived barrier, perceived self-efficacy, perceived threat and net-benefit towards screening (P < 0.05). Perceived self-efficacy (AOR 1.24, 95%CI 1.13-1.37), perceived threat (AOR 1.08, 95%CI 1.05-1.12) and perceived net-benefit (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.12, 1.24) were the predictors of cervical cancer screening practice. Percieved self-efficacy was the major predictor of cervical screening practice. Conclusion and recommendation: The low screening level and significant association of HIV-positive women’s perceptions toward cervical cancer screening identified in this study indicated that much work needs to be done on changing of their perceptions by responsible bodies such as health care providers, organizations working on female cancer and researchers.



Cervical cancer, screening, HIV/AIDS, Health belief model