Anthelmintic utilization practices in Ada’a district and in vitro anthelmintics efficacy study against Haemonchus.contortus and Trichostrongylus.columbriformis in Oromia, Ethiopia

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Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an infectious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals and it remains an economically important disease globally. It has become the number one livestock disease problem in Ethiopia causing cattle and cattle products export restriction. Antigen and gene detections of FMDV from outbreak cases in Borena zone of Oromia region were conducted using a cross-sectional study design. Purposive sampling was used in three kebeles: Arbore, Buyo and Dasogore, of Gomole district of the zone where outbreak had occurred. Clinical examination was performed on FMD suspected cattle and epithelial and swab sample was collected from representative animals. A total of 29 samples were collected and tested by real time RT-PCR for gene detection and sandwich ELISA for antigen typing. The rRT-PCR test result showed that 41.38% (12/29) sample were positive for FMDV. 10 rRT-PCR positive samples were subjected to antigen detection ELISA for serotyping and four serotypes of FMDV were detected; 3(60%) were serotype O, 1(20%) was mixed infection (serotype A and O) and 1(20%) was also mixed infection (SAT1 and SAT2). In addition, all the collected samples were subjected to virus isolation using baby hamster kidney day 21 (BHK-21) cells and 24.14% (7/29) showed cytopathic effect. Based on the evidence from antigen and molecular detections, four serotypes (A, O, SAT1, and SAT2) of FMD virus were circulating in the area causing production losses and mortality. Therefore, regular monitoring of the circulating virus and serotyping should be implemented as a base for selection of matching vaccine to institute effective control strategy in the area.



Antigen and gene detections, Borena, Bovine, Ethiopia, FMD, outbreak investigation