The Perceived Difference between Male and Female Managers: A Case of Five Selected Ministry Offices in Addis Ababa.

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Addis Ababa University


Whether men and women behave differently in managerial roles is a much debated question. Many scholars developed different theories about the impacts of gender roles in understanding differences between male and female managers. Most studies also proved that gender role stereotyping resulted differences between male and female managers leadership style, value systems, effectiveness, career advancements, etc. Thus, this study was planned to examine the perceived differences between male and female managers on the job (in Ethiopian context) by using managers self and their subordinates’ evaluation. The study was conducted from the randomly selected five ministry offices found in Addis Ababa. The already developed Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSI) and Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) were used as data collection tools. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) on statistical measures was performed based on the number of responses obtained from male female managers self and subordinates evaluations. The most interesting finding revealed in this research is the presence of gender differences in leadership style. Both male and female managers were rated to exhibit more transformational leadership behaviors than transactional leadership behaviors. However, female managers were rated to exhibit significantly more transformational behaviors than male managers, F(1, 111) = 18.954, P<0.001 and male managers were rated to exhibit significantly more transactional behaviors F(1, 111) = 21.662, P<0.001 than female managers. The other significant finding of this study is that male managers are rated to be more masculine than female managers and female managers are more feminine than male counter parts. Gender role stereotyping is found to be the cause of most of the differences revealed in this study.



Male and Female Managers