Factors related to sustainability of water and sanitation projects in the rural setting of North Gondar, Ethiopia

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Addis Abeba Universty


A descriptive cross-sectional study to assess factors of sustainability of water supply and sanitation projects was done in the rural setting of North Gondar in North Western Ethiopia, January 2002. The quantitative study included an interviewing 768 female household respondents using a structured questionnaire. A qualitative study was conducted from one hundred fourteen water and sanitation projects using observation checklist and supported by slide film and computer print out pictures. Focus group discussion was conducted, both at the community and at the project funding organization level. The study examined Utilization, Functionality and Participation of the community as important elements of sustainability to their water and sanitation projects. The mean age of the respondents were 37.09 years. Seventy (9.11%) were literate, six hundred thirty two (82.3%) were married, of these 267(42.25%) of their husbands were literate, a mean family size of 5.31 persons per household, a mean of 60.72 Birr family income per month. Four hundred forty two (57.6%) households were using protected water projects and 5 (0.7%) were having pit latrines. The mean per capita water consumption was 6.68 liters, the mean time to collect water; total time, from house to source, staying at the source, and back to the house were 20.51, 6.11, 5.65, and 8.76 minutes respectively. The average frequency of water collection was 2.04 times per day. Three hundred thirty nine (76.7%) were participated in the development of the water projects. Fifty-two (11.76%) of the respondents were complaining of not functionality of the water projects. A significant positive association of adequate water per capita was found with the family size four and less number of people (p= .009). Vii 10 A very significant positive association with the respondents complains of projects not function (p < .00001) was found time waiting at the water point (mean + SD 5.65 + 2.24). Significant positive association with the participation of respondents contributed (p < 0.05) was found with the type of water projects (protected springs) than Protected hand dug well. Results from the observation checklist showed that 77% of the protected spring and 52% of the hand dug wells were broken at least once since of their duration of services. Animal trough and cloth washing facilities were observed in 11(21%) protected springs and 9(17%) hand dug wells. There were Guards at the water source points in 12(23%) of the protected springs and 19(36.5%) protected hand-dug wells. Based on the findings, the need of training on proper financial management of the contributed money, strengthening the skill and resource capacity of the water desk agents at the Woreda level, and planning to construct additional protected water are recommended.



Factors related to sustainability of water