Dairy Production, Processing and Market System: A case Study of Gambella, South West Ethiopia

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Addis Ababauniversity


A study on characterization of cattle milk production, processing and marketing system was conducted in Gambella region based on data collected between September and December, 2009. A multistage sampling procedure was employed to select representative kebeles and households from Jekow and Gambella town. A total of 156 households were randomly selected using systematic random sampling methods. Questionnaire based formal survey as well as Participatory Rural Appraisal techniques were employed to collect both quantitative and qualitative data on cattle milk production, prioritizing the major production constraints and selection criteria for dairy cows and breeding bulls in the region, while Rapid Market Appraisal techniques were used to characterize the marketing system of dairy products. For verification of the survey based information, 24 households (12 lactating cows in each) were voluntarily selected from the two farming systems and were monitored (one month/ farming system) on related parameters. Two types of livestock production systems were identified in the district, namely crop-livestock mixed farming and urban production system. The current study was concerned entirely on both the production systems. The average cattle herd size of households was 16 heads, but it varied significantly (P<0.05) between the two areas. Cows (43%) and heifers (20%) mainly dominate the herd composition. The breeding system was entirely natural mating performed unselectively. Major feed resources used by the households were natural grazing (48%) and crop residues (29.5%). Availability of water throughout the year was also noted by most respondents (88.5%). The major disease of cattle identified in the current studied areas was trypanosomosis (49.4%) followed by brucellosis (25%). Average milk off-take of indigenous cows was 1.62± 0.07 liters /cow/day and on average cows gave a lactation yield of 355.0± 10.274 liters/cow during an average lactation period of about 7.30±0.06 months. Cows in urban gave significantly (P<0.05) higher daily milk yield and milked with in a lactation period similar to that of rural areas. These differences were mainly attributed to feeding practice (supplementation; atella) in the urban area. Out of the total milk produced, most of it was consumed (41%), while some quantity was sold out (37%), traditionally processed (13%) and given to neighbor (8%). The dairy marketing system identified was entirely informal. Milk production and marketing system were constrained mostly by diseases, feed scarcity, security problem, distant traveled to sell milk and seasonality in price variation. Government intervention should focus on dairy production and on improving the marketing system of these products. Key words: Dairy, production system, marketing, processing, utilization



Dairy, production system, marketing, processing, utilization