Seroepidemiological Study of Bovine Herpes Virus-1 in Dairy Cattle Herds Of Addis Ababa,Ethiopia

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Addis Abeba University


Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortions, and genital disorders in cattle. Although BoHV-1 has been known to cause severe economic damage to the dairy industries, little is known about its epidemiology in dairy cattle of Addis Ababa (AA), Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in the dairy cattle herds of AA from November 2021 to May 2022 to estimate the seroprevalence and associated risk factors for BoHV-1. A total of 369 dairy cattle from 115 dairy herds were included in this study, and a proportional stratified random sampling method was employed. Blood samples were collected and subjected to ELISA test to detect antibodies against BoHV-1. Semi-structured questionnaires were also administered to determine the risk factors and association of reproductive disorders with BoHV- 1 seropositivity. Univariate and multivariate mixed effect logistic regression analyses were used. The animal and herd level prevalence were 21% (95% CI: 17-25%) and 32% (95% CI: 24-42%), respectively. In a multivariable mixed effect logistic regression model, adult cattle had fourteen times (OR = 14.32; 95% CI: 2.53–81.5; P=0.003) more likely to increase the risk of being BoHV-1 seropositive than young cattle. Purchased cattle had four times (OR = 4.15; 95% CI: 1.36–12.66, P=0.012) more likely to increase the risk of being BoHV-1 seropositive than homebred cattle. Less than 100m distance between cattle herds were eleven times (OR=10.75; 95% CI: 1.47–78.3; P=0.019) more likely to increase the risk of being BoHV-1 seropositive than beyond 100m. The risk of being BoHV-1 seropositive was twenty-four times higher (OR = 23.92; 95% CI: 1.93–296.33; P=0.013) on farms that did not control visitors than on farms that did. The risk of being BoHV-1 seropositive was significantly higher in herds using bulls (84%; 95% CI: 36-99; P=0.01) than herds using AI. BoHV-1 seropositivity was significantly associated with cows which had a history of abortion (OR = 6.89; 95% CI: 1.97–22.76; P=0.002), a history of retained placenta (OR = 3.26; 95% CI: 1.32–8.07; P = 0.010), and a history of repeat breeding (OR = 3.64; 95% CI: 1.08–12.18; P=0.036). A practice of BoHV-1 free certified bull selection and routine biosecurity measures on the farm should be adopted, and the risk factors should also be included in designing the prevention and control strategy of BoHV-1



AA, Risk factors, Seroprevalence, BoHV-1, Dairy cattle, ELISA