Factors Affecting Females' Participation in Education: The Case of Tocha Woreda in Snnpr

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Addis Ababa University


Education is a 1001 to enable citizens to make all rounded participation in development process. The participation of females in socio-economic programs especially depends on their educational background Educating girls and women is critical to achieve the benefits as well as the improvement in the areas of health, fertility and nutrition. Thus, females must be treated equally with males to attain educational access, which is necessQly to increase their participation in different development programs. International treaties, conventions, laws & policies set a legal commitment on the right of education and gender equality. However, gross and net enrollment differences in schooling of females prevail. Females remain under represented at all levels of education. The females ' participation gap in education is wide in developing countries, one of which is Ethiopia. Ethiopia is one of the developing countries with low females' participation in education. Statistics reveals that the number of female students in primary, secondary and higher education is not equal to that of male students. This low participation is one of the causes for females' to be underprivileged and underrepresented in development programs. If low females participation in education continues, the Country would probably have a problem in achieving MDGs Goal 3 Target 4. These raise the issue that the role of education and female participation should be analyzed and studied The aim of this research was to fdentify factors affecting females 'participation in education in Dawuro Zone, Tocha woreda. To attain this objective, information on school enrollment and school age population was gathered flom documents of the Ministry of Education and SNNPREB. Further more, fo rmal questionnaires were distributed to 260 female students, school principals and teachers. On the other hand, focuscd-group discussion was held with 56 female students' parents and with six woreda educational officials to gather information on factors that have contributed to low female participation in education. Percentages were predominantly used to indicate the magnilude oJrespondents' opinion and assumptions against each statement. The results of the study showed that factors that affected females participation in education are: qualification oj teachers, parents demand of female child labor, school cost such as house rent, food s1lpply cost, long distance to school, parents' poverty, fear of male harassment, lack of role models, dropolll, abduction or "telefa ", parents' religion type, early marriage, PQl-ems' illiteracy and wony of 1Inwonted pregnancy. These are the IIwiur reasons for lOll' female participation in eaueatian in the .<tll((v area. According to the study, the following have been recommended to improve females' participation in Tocha Woredo. Recruiting qualified teachers, conducting workshops and scminars ll'ith parents and religiolls leoders to make societv ond parents aware on the bene/its of .female education. Building 2nd cycle prinwry and secolidUlY sc;/wuls at reasonable distances, building boarding houses for distant female students, ililproving home technologies to minimize the incidence of female child labor are also recomll1ended Furthermore recruiting more felilale teachers to be role models, school principals and concerned government bodies offering especial support 10 female students, take serious measures on abduction pnd early lI1arriage would help to increase females' participation in education



Affecting Females