Municipal Solid Waste Management in Arusha City, Tanzania: Involvement of the Private Companies and Community-Based Organisations.

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Addis Ababa University


Amidst rapid urbanisation going on in developing world cities, majority of the cities have moved ji-om govemment monopoly in direct urban services delivelY toward privatisatiol1. The purpose of this study was to explore involvement of the private companies and Community-Based Organisations (CBOs) in municipal household solid waste management in Arusha municipality, Tanzania. Further the study analyse stakeholders involved, explores household solid waste system, assess privatisation outcomes, compares service delivered by private companies and CBOs with households ' satisfaction levels, and identify key challenges in waste management. J employed purely qualitative approach for the study. PrimC/ly data were collected through semistructured interviews with private companies, CBOs and households; key iliformant interviews, iliforlllal interviews, and direct observation and photographing. Various secondC/ly sources were also incorporated. An actor-oriented approach and stakeholders' analysis were the main theories that underpin the study. Results show that solid waste was privatised following government's gross failures in service delively. Implementation of the Sustainable Cities Programme marked the shift ji'Olll govemment monopoly to non-state actors in service delively. Private companies are involved through competitive bidding and tendering at the municipality, while CBOs enters into service contracts with ward administration but with an approval ji-om the municipality. MuniCipal household solid waste management is broadly under Public-Private Partnership (PPP) system ' whereby govemment owns the service but under private sector and civil society led provision. Stakeholders involved are diversified, have different motives and peljorms different roles. Asymmetrical power relations, huild and use of manipulations at all levels are common features among actors. Privatisation outcomes in the municipality are mixed. There are places which have experienced increased waste collection efficiency and widened coverage, elimination of the illegal minidumps, and consolidation of the iliformal sector. CBOs have managed to extend service to the inaccessible peri-urban settlements by using combination of the lIIotorised and non-Illotorised movements in waste collection and transportation. Low-income areas in particular are experiencing privatisation deceptions whereby contractors exist by names only not in practice, or there is no any considerable change in the state of sanitation. Service variations between private companies and CBOs revolve around service areas and service itself, waste collection systems and transportation modalities, and user fee rates. Majority of the interviewed service users are not satisfied with the service. Unsatisfied users are predominantly served by CBOs. Reasons for customers' satisfaction or dissatisfaction are ji-equency and waste collection schedule consistencies, user charge rates, state of sanitation in the neighbourhood, and kind of language used by waste or revenue collectors. The state of physical inji-astructures, contractors ' capacity and households' socio-economic statlls are highly influential on service variations. Major challenges are within the realm of govemance failures, socia-cultural, economic issues, and inji-astrllctures and city planning; suggesting that all actors must come together for longterm major changes, and organisational and institutional set-lip ji-om down to up. Key word5: CBOs, Municipal household solid waste, Private companies, Privatisation



CBOs, Municipal household solid waste, Private companies, Privatisation