Manufacturing and Experimental Performance Analysis of a Micro Hydro Pelton Turbine

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Addis Ababa University


To ensure sufficient alternative energy for future, considering renewable energy is an idea with no question. Having said this, Ethiopia is a country blessed with different kinds of renewable energy resources. One of the most effective renewable energy in Ethiopia is hydropower, which uses hydraulic turbines to generate electricity. According to the way of energy transfer, there are two types of hydraulic turbines namely impulse turbines and reaction turbines. From impulse turbine, Pelton turbine has an excellent establishment of micro-hydroelectric power plant, due to its simple construction and ease of manufacturing. However, there is no local company or institute, which manufactures hydro turbines yet. Having this in mind, localization and manufacturing of hydro turbines plays a crucial role economically for the development of the power sector in Ethiopia. This study aims in manufacturing and performance lab testing analysis of Pelton turbine with specification of Power of 2KW, flow rate of 20.8 Lit/sec, height of 13.3m and Pitch Circle Diameter (PCD) of 212mm, in order to develop a manufacturing manual while helping localize renewable energy technologies in hydropower sector. SOLIDWORKS and Matlab software, 3D printing, sand casting, lathe machine, welding machine and drilling machines were used to manufacture the turbine according to the design results. From this study, the manufactured turbine has an overall efficiency of 54.09%, which is 3.41% less from the expected theoretical value at 75% valve opening. Hence, micro hydro Pelton turbine was able to manufacture and then manufacturing manual was developed. Finally, laboratory test results have been evaluated and good agreement between performance curves of simulation and experimental test at designed turbine speed. This shows the manufactured Pelton turbine is effectively fabricated locally and thus the fabrication methodology followed could be used as a manufacturing manual for local developers. The variation between theoretical and experimental test result and simulation with experimental test result was occurred due to quality of manufacturing (especially casting of bucket) and inconvenience test rig at AAiT.



Small Hydro Power, Micro Hydro Pelton turbine, Efficiency, Manufacturing, Manual