Evaluation of Technical Sustainability of Rural Water Supply Projects in The Amhara Regional State Case Study in South Wollo

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Addis Ababa


The objective of this study is to evaluate the technical sustainability of rural water supply situation in South Wollo zone in the Amhara Regional State. The evaluation of water supply in selected rural areas is based on desk study of relevant literature and findings of the field assessment on the performance of the water supply systems . The study is carried out in two Woredas of south Wollo zone by visiting 29 water supply schemes. The three types of water supply technologies studied in the thesis are hand dug wells, spring development, and shallow borehole. Inadequate delivery of rural water supply system services, due to so many, difficulties are inhibiting the access of communities to basic Water Supply System infrastructure services. Existing facilities are often poorly constructed and insufficiently maintained, and do not adequately provide urgently needed basic services. The major problems, which are noticed in the sample water supply projects, are structural defects, quality, quantity, non reliability, inconvenience, too much user, lack of maintenance and repair, lack of trained person, attitudinal problem etc. Among the numerous factors that contributed to the poor performance of the schemes, the two key reasons are technical and institutional problems. Poor facilities design, poor construction, and lack of provision for system management and operation and maintenance, Limited policy implementation, Lack of capacity to keep the system running after project completion, poor cooperation between the water agent and users, lack of involvement of the community in the planning and construction process have also compounded the problems In the paper different kinds of water technologies suitable for small villages are discussed as options, by giving attention to VLOM Hand pumps and renewable energy IE solar and wind pumps. The recommendations stress on the need for proper and routine O&M program, need of quality checking and control, importance of cooperation between different water supply implementing agencies, need for encouraging community involvement as the key to ensure project sustainability and reduction of costs, and on implementing systematic and decentralized management and monitoring system of water supply schemes at the village level.



Amhara Regional State