Implications of Sand Mining on the Environment and Livelihoods in Four Kebeles of Dugda District

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Addis Ababa University


This study examined the effects of sand mining on the environment and livelihoods of people in some selected Rural Kebeles (RK) of Dugda District in East Shawa Zone of Oromiya Regional State. Sand mining sites were provided legally registered and licensed by governmental stakeholders to the people engaged as the sand miners. In District 22 kebeles out of the total 40, the society are directly or indirectly the one benefited from or exposed to it and the study area was quantitatively and qualitatively factors which are not addressed yet. This study had endeavored to seek to fill the gap with the aim of ensuring that maximum benefits are gained from the operations of sand mining without causing much destruction to the environment and other livelihood activities especially farming. In this study, primary data collected from four RKs in the District namely; Birbrsa Gale, Dongorota Gusa, Oda Boqota and Sera Wakale. Three hundred thirty seven (337) respondents were chosen using the systematic sampling and purposive sampling for 22 key informal interview techniques in the research. Data from the respondents were collected using field observations, questionnaires and interviews. The quantitative data were analyzed using such as Chi-square and Correlation, crosstab and compared means. The qualitative data were analyzed using content and thematic investigation of actions as they unfolded in the field. The study found that, primarily unemployment influenced people into sand extraction or harvesting. Also, very high incomes and regular revenue from the sales of sand were created to be some of the positive effects of sand mining on livelihoods and source of taxation for Meki town and the District as well. Sand contributed its own role for construction industry to the regional and national level. Sand mining was found to have negative effects on livelihoods damaged public and private properties by unplanned pathway trucks destroyed roads; farmland, vegetation and caused dust during dry season and muddy during the rainy season, road vehicle trafficking in the area caused accidents. Sand mining caused effects on the environments (Meki river) by depth many holes dug in different places as people engaged increased, the river bed has expanded in both directions north-south of kebeles, as well as the river bed degraded by sand miners path time to time and vegetation roots destroyed and fall down on the river surrounding, The study found that, although sand mining supports the livelihoods of some people, it also has the able to devastating the environment and destabilizing the livelihoods of farmers and communities through various negative actions. The study recommends that, sand mining rules and regulations enforced into the laws be established and enforced by levels of concerned government body at the grass root to be functionalized. Such a move could prevent the sand miners from causing unwarranted destructions to farmlands, vegetation and water bodies (river). Again, sand mining sites should be properly demarcated and operated by the local authorities to confirm that, environmental impact assessments are done on such lands prior to mining the sand.



sand mining, environment, livelihood, sustainable development, life cycle