Level of Aflatoxin in Sorghum Injera From Eastern Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


Sorghum Injera is a predominant human feed in Eastern Ethiopia. However, most of farmers in Hararghe, Eastern Ethiopia, store their grain in underground pit which is very conducive to produce Aflatoxin by Aspergillus Species. Thus, consumption of Injera made from sorghum grain contaminated with aflatoxin is a potential risk for human health. Aflatoxin is highly genotoxic, mutagenic, and hepatocarcinogenic substances. Therefore, this study was conducted with an objective to determine total aflatoxins in Sorghum Injera sample from Eastern Ethiopia. The analysis of the study was conducted on thirteen (30) duplicate samples collected from five districts of Harrghe, Eastern Ethiopia. The main analytical technique implemented for aflatoxin analysis was Immunoaffinity sample clean-up and Shimadzu High performance liquid chromatography using fluorescent as a detector. Questionnaire also implemented to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) aspect of the participants. The study revealed that 66.67% of the samples were contaminated with aflatoxins; B1, B2, G1 and G2 above lower limit of quantification. The maximum concentration of aflatoxin found in sorghum Injera sample was 53.33μg/kg with an overall mean of 11.2 μg/kg. On the other hand, the average AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 concentrations were 4.63 μg kg-1, 0.406 μg kg-1, 5.75 μg kg-1 and 0.856 μg kg-1 respectively. The current result showed that there was significant contamination of Sorghum Injera samples with Aflatoxins. 33.33% of sample analyzed were unsafe for direct human consumption as per the FDA maximum tolerable intake limit (exceed 20 μg/kg). In addition, 53.33% of sample analysed were unsafe for human feed as per EU maximum tolerable intake level (exceed 4 μg/kg). The major underlined factor for the heavy contamination of sorghum injera with aflatoxin in the region might be because of poor Pre-and postharvest management of sorghum grain, mainly, the storage of sorghum grain in the un-sanitized underground pit was very favourable for the production aflatoxins by Aspergillus mould: A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Thus, Adequate pre- and postharvest management, adequate grain storage and suitable food processing steps shall be followed to get rid of aflatoxins from ingesting it along with food so that we can prevent the occurrence of disease with aflatoxins. The result of knowledge, attitude and practice assessment in this study revealed that, awareness of mold growth and formation of mycotoxin is very low among house holders, retailers and Farmers



Aflatoxin, Sorghum Injera, Ethiopia, HPLC, Immunoaffinity Column