Food Consumption Pattern, Nutrient Intake and Association with Different Maternal Characteristics among Antenatal Care Attending Pregnant Women in Bishoftu Town East Shoa Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


Introduction: The consumption pattern that women adhere to during pregnancy has great potential to affect the future health condition of both the mother and the fetus. Despite maternal nutritional problems continued to be public health concerns of the country, consumption pattern studies among pregnant women is limited. Objective: To assess food consumption pattern, nutrient intake and association with different maternal characteristics among Ante Natal Care attending pregnant women in Bishoftu town, East Shoa, Ethiopia. Method: A facility based cross sectional study was conducted to among 369 pregnant women. Dietary intake was assessed using semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire composed of 70 food items. Consumption patterns were identified using factor analysis method. Multivariate regression in age and calorie adjusted model was done to determine characteristics of participants in each pattern identified. All analysis was done using STATA version 12.1 and a Pvalue< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: Four major consumption patterns were identified. Namely “varied pattern”,”Cereal, vegetable and tea based pattern”, “Cereal, meat and sweet based pattern” and “cereal, root &tuber and coffee based pattern”. Calorie, fat, vitamin A, folate, calcium intakes and zinc particularly among third trimester pregnant women were deficient. Maternal age, marital status, maternal education and occupation, husband education, socioeconomic status, and snack habit were positively correlated whereas household size, gravidity, fasting, food restriction and chronic disease were negatively correlated with the varied consumption pattern. Conclussion: Cereals dominated consumption pattern of pregnant women. Three of the patterns lack variety which may have exposed participants to nutrient deficiency. Those who are young, single/ divorced, educated at lower level and with low socioeconomic status were less likely to adhere to varied (healthier) consumption pattern and had decreased calorie intake. The findings underscore the need for nutrition counseling with more emphasis to the identified risk groups. Key Words: Pregnancy, consumption pattern, nutrient intake, Semi quantitative FFQ, factor analysis



Pregnancy, Consumption pattern, Nutrient intake, Semi quantitative FFQ