Migration to Addis Ababa: An Explanation of Reasons for Migration and Employment Status At the Destination

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Addis Ababa University


Urban growth in Ethiopia has been chiefly characterized by the emergence of the Primate City Addis Ababa. The concentration of economic activities and social services in the city attract a large number of in-migrants ji-om all over the countly. The city has been critically suffering ji-om high unemployment and underemployment rates, shortage of housing and inadequate sewerage and waste disposal. The purpose of this study is to explain reasons for the persistence of the influx of migrants to the city in spite of worsening employment opportunities and the possibility of earning of a living in the city. The study focused on the analysis of motivational factors for migration into the city based on the subjective responses of migrants about reasons for migration. Furthermore, to analyze labor force participation, employment and occupational status of migrants as compared to non-migrants in the city. In order to achieve the purpose of the study the data used for the analysis taken ji-om the National Labor Force Survey (NLFS) conducted by the Central Statistical Authority (CSA) in April 1999. In the data analysis part both descriptive statistics and analytical methods were employed. The result ji-OIn this study indicates that 46.3% of the sample population were migrants. This result is consistent with the 1994 Census result that indicates migrants constituted about 46. 7% of the total population enumerated in the city. Analysis of reasons for migration to the city revealed that in-migrating for search of job constituted the highest proportion (38.9%) of all reasons cited in the study. Desire for education accounted for 20% of all responses and was the second important factor for migration to the city followed by moving to accompany family (8. 2%) and to live with relatives in the city (7.0%). Motivational factors for migration depend on characteristics of individual migrants such as sex, age, education and place of previous residence. The odds ratio (Exp(B) =1. 6931) in the logistic regression model indicates that male migrants cited economic reason Oob searching) more than 1.6 times that of female migrants. With respect to rural/urban place of previous residence rural migrants are 18.6% more likely to be motivated by economic factor than migrants ji-OI1l urban areas. As educational attainment increases propensity of migrating to the city in search of job increases. The logistic regression resultindicates that in-migration for search of job is higher among persons attained higher level of education than persons at lower educational attainment. Concerning labor force participation differentials, the result revealed that about two-third (66%) of recent migrants, nearly three-quarter (73.2%) of long-term migrants (5-9 years of residence) and only about half (52.5%) of non-migrants were economically active during the 12 months prior to the survey. Higher proportion, about 58.7%, of recent migrants were in the lower occupational category as compared to 38.4% of long-term migrants and 22.3% of nonmigrants in the same occupational categoly. The logistic regression odds ratio (Exp(B) =3.2678) indicate that the chance of being employed in the informal sector is more than three times higher for recent migrants as compared to the non-migrants. However, as duration of residence increased to 5-9 years and 10 years or more the odds ratios decreased to Exp(B)=2.3924 and Exp(B)=1.4324 , respectively.



Migration and Employment Status