# Finite-Time Thermodynamic Processes of a Spin-One Quantum Electric Dipole System Department:

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## Date

2020-09-25

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Addis Ababa University

## Abstract

We take a collection of large non-interacting spin one particles, each having an electric
dipole of magnitude D in contact with a heat reservoir at temperature T . We apply a
strong static electric field, E0, to the system along a z-axis causing three level split energy
values. In addition to the strong electric field, applying a weak AC electric field in
the xyplane induced transitions between the three levels. Through a given protocol
_(t), the system is taken from an initial thermodynamic equilibrium state F(T ;_i ) to a
final non-equilibrium state with parameter _f . We analytically obtain the expressions
for the probability amplitudes for a transition from one particular initial state to the
other two final states. This will enable us to find the work distributions of a finite-time
process of taking the system from one initial state to either of the two final states of
the three-level system. This finite-time non-equilibrium process will then enable us to
extract equilibrium thermodynamic quantities like free energy from non-equilibrium
process, which is what we call Jarzanski equality and its relation to the second law of
thermodynamics. We obtain the possibilities of work distributions of the three-level
system in the optimum condition for non-interacting particles. Besides, we empirically
obtain the average work of the three-level system as a function of ! and time
around the optimum frequency, where ! is the frequency of AC electric field.

## Description

## Keywords

Finite-Time, Thermodynamic, Processes, Spin-One Quantum, Electric Dipole System Department