Migrant -- Non-Migrant Fertility Differentials: The Case of Addis Abeba

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Addis Ababa University


In the study of population not only is the size important but also the rate of growth and the dynamics of its change. This is more so in developing countries with their high population growth rate and the much higher urban and primate city growth. Addis Ababa has been reported to be growing at around 5 per cent per year and the facilities, amenities, infrastructures, etc. have not been able to accommodate this growth. Planners and policy makers have been concerned about this and demographers have a role to play in distinguishing the factors behind this high growth. Using a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure a total of 1000 households were selected from 50 Kebeles in Addis Ababa and a total of 1133 respondents were interviewed for the present study. In each of the households selected into the sample, each eligible respondent (both migrant and non-migrant ever married women aged 15- 49) was asked a range of questions covering her marital, pre and post migration history as well as on related socio-economic status history. The analysis indicated that, at macro level there is not much difference in the fertility performance of migrants and non-migrants in Addis Ababa. This pattern continued even when we categorized them into different socio-economic and demographic variables; like economic activity status, ethnicity, education, age at first marriage, breastfeeding durations and contraceptive useThe micro level analysis attempted to identify the specific mechanisms through which the said socio-economic variables affected fertility, by controlling for age at marriage, breastfeeding duration and contraceptive use. Whereas the migrant - nonmigrant differential was virtually not in the expected direction, controlling for the proximate determinants, the higher migrant than non-migrant fertility was observed. Among the former, fertility was apparently higher among those of rural origin than their urban counterparts. In the area of mortality also, we observed that, migration tends to affect positively the survival of the children of migrants.