Assessment of Fluoride in take in Endemic Areas of Ethiopia and potential use of Calcium Rich Foods in Mitigating Ingested Fluoride

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Addis Ababa


E\-cl!ssil'e infake of fluoride is accompanied by a c:JUlNIclerislk sequence of changes ill l e",1I. bUill' and periar'icular lisslies. Skeletal changes lead 10 a \'oriable degree of /ocomolOr disability. rtll1ging .li'o/ll simple mechanical back pain (0 severe, crippling and neurological illlpairlllelll. Fluorosis is (/n impUrllll'JI cliniced al!d public health prublem il/ several jJar/~ or fhe world. Reports indicate Ihall.J million EthiopiallS dwelling ill £/hiopian Rift /;olley (I.:~. RV) (Ire (1/ risk a/fluorosis. III Elhiopia, l/tl!re (Ire sewra! studies reportillgJllloride COIl/ellf a/waler sOllrces while Ihaf of die /lilY ill,ake aIfluoride is scarce. For fhe purpose ojprevelllioll and mitigatory measlires. studies oj a/l pOlel1/ill/ fluoride sources (Ire il11jJortal1l. The knowledge and pracrice~ of endemic cOlllllllmilies Oil eliology o/}luorosis IIIlIyalso help in ils mitigOliolllllld prerelllioll. The objective oI this .I'ludy is therefore fO identify putell/iol }luuride SOI/rces, fluorusis risks and to delermine fhe level of die tmy }luoride illtake lind its ejJecls fV suggest mitigatory means of ingesred jluoride based on nlllritional ill/en'ention. Moreover Ihe assessmel/l of rhe kllolt'ledge, all ifllde and pracI ices of endemic COlllllllll1ily 011 fluoride contallli/Utl iOll, jluorosis lIlId prevenliol1 pracfices is used 10 devise coordill(lfed al/d tal'geled prel'el1fiolJ mechanisms. Recollnaissance survey was conducted 10 idemify three waleI' sources /wvingjluoride COllfelll ill Ihe range of 5-7mg/L (calise skelelal jluol'm"i.\) ji-Olll three dijJerem dief(uy al'el/S iI/ E1hiopian R!fi Valley. In Ihe os.\·eSSIIICI1f ./8 waler sources were rOlldolllly selected and assessedjor /he level ojfllloride. alit afthose screened Bellli ill Female, !-Ill/akll;'/ Adami/IIIII alld Koboclwbllre in Alaba \rere selected 10 slIldy jluoride illlake and Ihe ejJecr of lIutrienl il1lake on jll/orosi.\". The selecrioll 0/ rhe waler source was based all service year (> lOyn), fluoride lewl (5 .$: X .$: 7 mg/LJ and dietary pracrice 0/ the co/III/IItHiry's /Ising Ihe selecred warer source. Foclls gl"Oup discllssions (FGD) were c:al/ducled in each selected dielOr)' areas 10 col/ect knowledge, allifllde and prac/ices (KAF) 0/ the endemic cOlI/lIUlI/ity 011 fluoride illtake and jluorosis. Index children and fheir bio{ogicallllOlhers were recruited /rom !lIe three cOI/I/J/llllilies. n,e eligibility criteria for house/wId se/ec/iol1 were dwelling for I/Iore tllall 10 yeors. 11.1'(' of .,e/ecred wafer source and 1II'lti/abilil)' of seI/Ool age c/lild ill tlte hOl/sehold. All eligible Ito/lseholds who are l"ollll1feered /0 participate ill the s flldy were recl"llited lI11d il//ormed