The Relation of Malaria Incidence and Climate out of Population in Amuru Woreda, Horo Guduru Wollega Zone, West Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


Malaria is one of the most important diseases in the world that is caused by a protozoan parasite of genus Plasmodium. It mostly affects (90%), Sub-Saharan African countries including Ethiopia. It was estimated that about 75% of the land and 68% of the population is exposed to malaria in Ethiopia. Although the severity of the problem at the regional and national level in the country is well known, there is limited information about the disease in Amuru district. To that end, a retrospective study was undertaken in the area based on ten years clinical and meteorological secondary data collected from three Amuru Health Centers and Shambu Metrological Station from 2007-2016. Accordingly, a total of 49,871 blood film samples were examined of which 11,335 (22.7%) of the samples were microscopically confirmed malaria case; and males were more infected than females with a ratio of 1.5:1(statically significantly(x2=46.335, df =9, p < 0.0001associated with sex. Malaria was reported in all age groups but more than 60% of the infection occurred in the active age group 0f 16 - 45 years which was significantly associated (X2= 12.255, P = 0.031, df = 5) with age group. The data also showed that the disease was caused mostly by Plasmodium falciparum (67.6%), Plasmodium vivax (24.8%) and mixed infection (7.6%). Despite the apparent fluctuation of malaria trend in the study area, the highest peak of malaria cases (34.9%) was recorded during September-November, followed by 32% in the trimester of June-August indicating that months at the beginning and immediately after rainy seasons increased the vulnerability to malaria infection. There was a steady reduction of malaria by 11% from 2007 to 2009 and increased by the same margin in 2010, remained stable up to 2012. However, it was reduced almost by half in 2013, and further decreased to 14.2% by 2016. All taken together, despite the fluctuations over the years, the prevalence of malaria decreased over 50% in 2016 compared to 2007. Although metrological factors such as relative humidity statically significantly correlated (r = 0.657, p = 0.020) with annual prevalence of malaria in study area, the most significant contribution over the years was national malaria control programs at the national and regional level through the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) partnership and three other consecutive strategic plans that increased access to availabilities of strong preventive and controlling methods that included distribution of long lasting insecticide-treated mosquito nets (LLITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) Key words: Diagnosis, Malaria, Morbidity, Mortality, P falciparum, Roll back malaria



Diagnosis, Malaria, Morbidity, Mortality, P Falciparum, Roll Back Malaria