Assessing Herd Immunity Potentials against Infectious Bursal Disease Virus before and after Vaccination, Vitamin and Protein Treatments in Broiler Chicken

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Addis Ababa University


The poultry sector of Ethiopia is at infant stage and constrained by lack of feed and emerging infectious diseases. Completely randomized design was used for the current study and it was conducted on 135 Cobb 500 broiler chicks with the aims of to measure maternally derived infectious bursal disease virus antibody transfer, to evaluate infectious bursal disease antibody titer level before and after vaccination and to determine level of humoral and cellular immunity response to vitamin and protein based feed supplements. A total of 90 sera samples were collected in three consecutive bleeding times at ten day interval and the sera samples were examined using commercial proFLOK IBD ELISA kit for antibody detection. Among those samples, 35 (38.8%) reacted positive to antibody against infectious bursal disease virus. There was difference in detection of antibody level across the sampling dates. Higher number of reactors were noted from day eight samples (77.78%), followed by samples from day 28th (36%) and the least reactors were recorded during the second bleeding on 18th day (13.16%). The mean titer level at the three bleeding times had statistically significant difference (P=0.000). The main factor contributing for this variation of antibody titer in the experimental units was sampling date, which determined to be statistically significant predictive variable. The mean antibody titer among chickens received supplement A and supplement B were higher as compared to the mean titer of the control group. The mean titer level recorded in group that was treated with supplement A was significantly higher compared to group 2 and the control. This may imply supplements with amino acids might have a better immune boosting effect. Regarding the effect of the supplements on cellular immunity, the mean count of lymphocyte (P= 0.047) and monocyte (P= 0.033) had statistically significant difference among the experimental groups. Though, the overall effect of supplements on humoral and cellular response noted in present study was positive, bleeding time (age) remained key factor for herd immunity. Improving herd immunity potential of young poultry population through effective immunization program and proper nutrition could help in prevention and mitigation the impact of IBD in poultry farm. Therefore, timely vaccination of parent and chicks is recommended. Moreover, provision of multivitamin and amino acid based supplements can help to reduce impact of infectious bursal disease outbreak.



Antibody Titer; Chicken; ELISA Test; Infectious Bursal Disease; Supplement