Burden of Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) Bacteria and Factors Affecting the Level of Contamination in Medical Equipments ( Stethoscope, Otoscope and Endoscope) Among Health Care Workers (HCW) at St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

No Thumbnail Available



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Addis Ababa University


Background: In health care facilities medical equipment like stethoscope owned by health care providers can be colonized by different microbial agents and could play major role as vehicles for the spreading of nosocomial infections. Objective: To assess the burden of MDR bacteria and factors affecting the level of contamination in Medical Equipments (Stethoscope, Otoscope and Endoscope) Among Health Care Workers (HCWs) at St. Paul‘s Hospital Millennium Medical College. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at St. Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College from November 2017-April 2018 on selected medical devices used by Health Care Workers (HCWs) to test the bacterial colonization. After obtained consent form Health Care Workers, 187 Stethoscopes, 8 Otoscope and 6 Endoscope were swabbed by rubbing the diaphragm of the Stethoscope, tips of the Otoscope and the tubes of the endoscope using sterile applicator stick moistened with sterile normal saline. The swab was quickly placed in a screwed sterile glass tube and transported to the Microbiology Laboratory for culture and identification immediately after collection and all pure isolates were tested for anti microbial sensitivity test using disc diffusion. SPSS version 20 used to analyze the data and p value <0.05 was considered as statically significant. Results: Of the 187 Stethoscope swabbed 157(84%) were contaminated. The contamination levels of Stethoscopes of General practitioner, Residents, and Medical students of internship were (100%, 87.5%, and 83.2%) respectively. Seventy five percent of Otoscope tips were colonized with different bacteria. Among the total isolates S.aureus and CoNS showed the highest resistance to Penicillin G. Methicillin resistance S.aureus and MRCoNS were 20.3% and 37.7% respectively. Conclusion: Most of isolates were resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobial agents. Even though cleaning stethoscope is not labor intensive and does not required much time, cleaning habits of the Health Care Workers were low. Therefore careful handling of stethoscope and other medical equipment is critical to minimize spreading of hospital acquired infections.



Medical instruments; Bacteria contamination; Multi drug resistance; Disinfection