Assessment of Peripheral Blood Blast Count and Selected Hematological Parameters before and During Chemotherapy of Acute Leukemia Patients at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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Addis Abeba University


Background: the assessment of peripheral blood blast count, some hematological parameters in acute leukemia is not researched well in developing countries although, nowadays leukemia is the main concern in these countries. Objective: to assess the value of peripheral blood blast count, selected hematological parameters before and during chemotherapy of acute leukemia patients at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital (TASH), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted in acute leukemia patients at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital from February to December 2020to assess the change in selected hematological parameters at three different times after taking first induction treatment. Complete blood cell count (CBC) and peripheral blood morphology of those patients were investigated in three different time points which starts in initial diagnosis, next at 7 and 14 days of induction treatment. Bone marrow analysis data extracted from pathology department at the beginning of patient diagnosis. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 23. Descriptive statistics were used to describe socio-demographic factors, chi square test of association was run for categorical variables and paired t-test and ANOVA was also used to compare pre and during induction blast counts and selected hematological parameters. P values less than 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. Result: 30 newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients aged 2 to 69 years were enrolled in this investigation. In this study age group is related with that of leukemia type. Some of the hematological parameters are assessed during the three time period. White blood cell (WBC), Blast count, Platelet, but not the other hematologic parameters before the administration of chemotherapy are statistically different with those values of day 7 and day 14 after starting chemotherapy. However, the two parameters WBC (50700, 5200, 2180 cells/ul) and Blast cell count (29700, 3150, 150cells/ ul) at the three time points show a significant effect for time. The respective values for Platelets were 92700, 37100, 55900 cells/ul. Conclusion: blast count and WBC which was counted (mean ± SD) at day 7 and 14 of induction treatment has a significant value to assess the response of the patient by the treatment. Therefore it should be used as a surrogate marker in the course of induction treatment. In contrast other hematological parameters did not show an effect on the response of the patient by the treatment. Analysis of larger sample size with other additional tests like immunological, biochemical, cytogenetic and flowcytometry should be done on this area of study.



Blast count, hematological parameters, acute leukemia, Ethiopia