Determination of Selected Essential and Non Essential Metals in Apple Fruit Cultivated from three Different Places in Ethiopia and from Commercial Market in Addis Ababa.

No Thumbnail Available



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Addis Ababa University


The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of macro, micro essential elements and non essential elements in apple fruit samples collected from farmland in Wollega, Chencha, Ankober and from market in Addis Ababa which are imported to Ethiopia from South Africa and Israel. Levels of selected metals (Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Al, Zn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb were determined by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Known weight of oven dried apple fruit samples were wet-digested using 3 mL HNO3 and 1 mL HClO4 for 2:15 hours and at temperature 210 o C. The validity of optimized procedure was evaluated by the analysis of spiked samples whose recoveries was 90.8-106%. The mean concentration range (mg/kg) of each metal in green apple and red apple fruit sample were Ca (1065-36275, 1013-36143), Mg (27-153, 78.3-139), Fe (103-276, 123-241), Mn (13.5-13.7, 11.5-16.3), Cu (5.13-6.56, 4.11-12.6), Al (77.8-129, 52.5-89.6), Zn (41.3-73.6, 47.4-54.4), Cr (6.15-10.04, 6.57-7.14), Co (6.57-7.14, 1.70-2.35), Ni (1.33-2.37, 1.43-7.66), respectively. Cd and Pb were not detected. Green apple fruit has no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) for Mn and Cu. All the other metals have significance difference. Their p-value was p ≤ 0.05. Red apple has no significance difference for Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr and Co ( p ≥ 0.05). The other metals have significance differences. Pearson correlation coefficients of metals from green apple between Ca/Mg, Ca/Fe, Ca/Al, Ca/Zn, Ca/Cr, Ca/Ni, Mg/Fe, Mg/Al, Mg/Cr, Mg/Ni, Fe/Mn, Fe/Al, Fe/Zn, Fe/Co, Mn/Cu, Cu/Co, Al/Ni, Zn/Cr, Zn/Ni and Cr/Ni are in very strong correlation relationship. Green apple fruit sample showed strong, moderate and weak correlation. Ca/Cr, Mg/Fe, Mg/Zn, Mg/Ni, Fe/Zn, Fe/Ni, Mn/Cu, Mn/Al, Cu/Al, Zn/Ni have strong positive correlation relationships.Ca/Zn, Mg/Mn, Mg/Cu, Mg/Al, Fe/Mn, Fe/Cu, Fe/Al, Mn/Zn, Cu/Co, Cu/Ni, Al/Co, Al/Ni, Zn/Co have strong negative correlation relationships.



Apple Fruit, Digestion, Optimization, Microwave Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, Essential Metals, Non-Essential Metals