Cause and Impact of Departure from Standards in Road Design and Construction Projects (The Case of Ethiopian Roads Authority)

No Thumbnail Available



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Addis Ababa University


This thesis assesses, review, analyze and recommend on cause, mitigation measures and impact of departure from standard on VOC of Ethiopian road projects in the case of Ethiopian Roads Authority. To address the problems, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to Contractor, Consultant and Employer participating in road construction sector. A total of 48 questionnaires from Contractor, Consultant and Employer were collected. To supplement questionnaire a desk study of randomly selected 5 ongoing road projects that administered by ERA which have departure from standard issue from these projects 4 AC road projects are used to investigate the impact of departure from standard on VOC. Based on the analysis of questionnaire and desk study the result reveled that limit construction costs, avoid land acquisitions, avoid adversely impacting the natural environment and preserve right-of-ways and historical or cultural resources are the most frequent causes of departure from standard and the most predominant type of design exception is pre-existing design exception and the type of roadway mostly affected by departure from standard is new construction and departure from standard mostly occurred on escarpment and mountainous terrain and based on HDM-4 Vehicle Operating Costs Module the total VOC for 20 year analysis period for Dabat – Kirakir – Ketema- Neguse Design –Build road project Contract 1: Dabat – Ajire is ETB: 1,876,295.62 and ETB: 1,885,461.60 with design standard and departure from the standard respectively, for Robe–Gasera–Km 60 is ETB: 2,047,253.21 and ETB: 2,214,319.65with design standard and departures from the standard respectively and for Adi Arkay-Telemt road project is ETB: 1,333,987.12and ETB: 2,908,865.69 with design standard and departures from the standard respectively. However, for Alaba -Angcaha -Wato Road project ETB: 2,294,339.36 and ETB: 2,443,648.60 with design standard and departures from the standard respectively, Hence, from the result effect of departure from standard of design criteria have direct relationship with VOC. Thus, Contractor should submit his departure from standard report for employer approval by considering and incorporating the comparison of VOC for both with design standard and departure from standard, ERA Geometric Design Manual should include design guideline to reduce VOC of departure from standard and put it as one of the criteria to submit the departure from standard request, establishment of an independent organization to follow up the proper implementation of mitigation measures, cost comparison should be made between the cost which is reduced by providing departure and road user cost due to departure from standard are some of the recommendation made under this study.



Cause, Mitigation Measure, Design Criteria, Standard, Departure from the Standard, Vehicle Operating Cost