Water Supply Coverage and Water Loss in Distribution System with Modeling (The Case Study of Addis Ababa)

No Thumbnail Available



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Addis Ababa University


Leakage in water distribution pipes is a major problem faced by the water industry. Water utilities often employ traditional audit methods to estimate water lost as leakage. As a result demand for additional water sources and infrastructure is growing. More ever, nearly 37% of the total water production is loss at different level of distribution system before reaching to the consumer. The focus of this study is to evaluate the city’s distribution coverage of the water supply and evaluating the total water loss. The water supply coverage at the city level and the total water loss both at the city level and at the sub system level, the collected data was assembled in EPANET and controls were added to best represent the functioning of the water system. Water production that is only for the city and the water consumption as aggregated from individual customer meter reading was to evaluate the total water loss at the city level. Select the pilot area in around Gottera the selection of the area from the branch based on the following criteria. Hydraulically easily desecrate area, 24hr water availability, Customer not more than 1000, and more leakage complain. The sub-system that has isolated networks and production and consumption data were used to evaluate and compare the spatial distribution of water loss. There are several reasons for the high level of water loss in Addis Ababa., and some advisory solutions were briefly proposed for the major effect of the water loss like age of pipe networks, poor maintenance of networks, water scheduling, customer side leakage and illegal connection. The reduction of NRW (Non Revenue Water) by Water Balance Method shows the difference between predicted and actual water losses in water distribution network, The results also shows that after leakage reduction control works took place, the volume of water loss in water distribution network has reduce about 39% of the total production supply to the sub-system. The distribution system model was then used to evaluate three alternative scenarios to improve system performance. The objective of the first and second scenario was to increase the flow rate at taps of low supply; the third scenario aimed at adding taps to parts of the sub-system without easy access to running water. The first scenario consisted in opening valves to connect subsystems: it increased the flow rate at taps of large supply more so than at taps of low supply. This scenario was not recommended because it would quickly drain parts of the water supply.



Water Supply and Environmental Engineering