Prevalence, Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Salmonella Isolated from Food Items and Personnel in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa Universty


A cross-sectional study to detennine the prevalence. distribution and antimicrobial profile of Salmonella serotypes isolated from food items and apparently healthy supermarket butchery workers was undertaken from September 2003 to February 2004. A lotal of 1200 food items consisting of chicken carcass (208). pork (194). mutton (212). minced beef( 142), cottage cheese (190). Tilapia fish meat (128) and ice cream (126) were purchased in Addis Ababa. Additionally sixty-eight stool samples were analyzed. Chicken carcass, pork. mutton and minced beef samples were collected from 32 randomly selected supermarkets while cottage cheese, fish and ice cream samples were collected from open markets (3). fish shops (6) and pastry shops (i 7) in Addis Ababa. respecti\ ely Out of the food iterru, 7 8% were positive for Salmonella and of sixty-eight stool samples five gave positive result (7 ~%) About 1-1% of chicken carcass, 11 .3% of pork, 108% of mutton, 8 5% of minced beef, 2 1 % of cottage cheese, 2 3% of fish and none of the ice cream yielded Salmonella. Salmonella was recovered from samples taken from 21 of the 32 supellllarkets considered 111 the study On the other hand one open market out of three, two fish shops out of six and none of the 17 past))' shops gave Salmonella positive results A total of I~ different serotypes out of 98 Salmonella isolates were identified Salmollclla 'ewpon (418%) was the most prevalent serotype, followed by S. Braenderup (l~ 1%). S Hadar (82%), S. Typhimurium (7.1 %). S Dublin (61 %) and S Haifa (61 %) Less commonly isolated Salmollella serotypes included S. I"fantis , S Kentucky, S. Bovjsmorbificans , S. Anatum, S Zanzibar, S Kottbus, S Saint paul and S I 9. 12' - Salmonella Newpon and S. Kentucky were reponed for the first time in Ethiopia Salmonella Newpon was Isolated from all sample types except ice cream. while S. Braenderup, S Kottbus. S. Saintpaul were detected only from chicken carcass, pork and minced beefsamples, respectively There \\ as a statistically significant difference in the rate of Salmonella isolation between meats (chicken carcass. pork, mutton and minced beef) and the rest of the samples (cottage cheese. fish and ice cream) (Pearson's X' = 37569. df = I, p-value Xl" = 0000) The level of antimicrobial resistance was significantly higher for chicken carcass and pork isolates as compared to other samples (p ~ 0.003). Assay of ant imicrobial resistance revealed that 32.7% of Sa/moil ella isolates were resistant to one or more of the 24 antimicrobials tested. Generally resistance fo r 13 different antimicrobial drugs was recognized The most common resistance was to streptomycin (24/32, 75%), ampicillin (19/32, 59.4%), tetracycline (15/32, 46.9%), spectinomycin (13 /32, 40.6%) and sulfisoxazole (13/32, 40.6%). All the three Salmonella Kentucky isolates showed resistance to at least 8 antimicrobials, which includes: ampicillin, amoxici llinlclavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, na lidic acid. spectinomycin, st reptomycin. sulfisoxazo le and tetracycline. Out of the 12 Salmonel/a Braenderup isolates, 10 (83 .3%) showed mult idrug resistance to ampicillin, spectinomycin, streptomycin. sulfisoxazole. sulfameth oxazoleltrimethoprim, amoxicilli nfclavulanic acid and n-imethoprim Among the 8 S. Hadar isolates 7 (86.5%) showed antimicrobial resistance of which three isolates showed resistance to streptomycin and tet racycline, two isolate showed resistance to tetracycline and the other two for streptomycin. All the 6 S. Dublin iso lates were resistant to carbadox ( 100 %) while one was addit ionally resistant to tetracycline. All the 6 S. Haifa strain isolated were resistant for at least ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline. Up to ten different antimicrobial resistances pattem was observed_ Antimicrobial resistance was most common among Sa/mollelia isolated ITom chicken carcass (18/29, 62 . 1 %) followed by pork (5/22, 22 .7%). Multiple antimicrobial drug resistance was observed in 23 Salmonel/a isolates (23 .5 %). The detection of 7.4% Salmonella calTiers· supennarket workers shedding S. Newpon, the most prevalent serotype, suggests possible linkage and potential source of infection. The findings of the present study ascenain that Sa/mollel/a serotypes were widely distributed panicularly in supennarket meat samples and significant proportion have developed resistance for routinely prescribed antimicrobial drugs both in veterinary and public health sectors . This poses considerable health hazards to the consumers unless prudent antimicrobial usage, adequate heat treatment. improvement of standards of hygiene and development and enforcement of suitable legislation. which safeguard consumers, are urgent ly instituted.



Prevalence, Salmollella. serotype. antimicrobial resistance, food items, supermarket, personnel, Addis Ababa