Staphylococcus: Epidemiology and Its Drug Resistance in Cattle, Food Chains and Humans in Central Ethiopia

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Addis Ababauniversity


The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence, determine associated risk factors and isolate Staphylococci species and determine its resistance to various antimicrobial agents in cattle, food, equipments and humans in central Ethiopia. In order to isolate and identify Staphylococci species from abattoir and dairy cows a cross- sectional study was conducted from October 2013 to May 2014. The results showed that the prevalence of Staphylococci species were 47.1% (140/297) udder milk, 58% (29/50) tank milk of the selected dairy farms, 34.4% (17/50) cow bucket swab, 38% (19/50) farm tank swab, 38% (19/50) hand and 70% (12/17) nasal swab of milkers, 38.5%(139/361) carcass swab, 37.8% (14/37) knife swab, 48.6% (18/37) slaughter line swab, 37.8% (14/37) hand and 46.7% (7/15) nasal swab of butchers with over all prevalence of 42.8%(428/1001). In addition, the prevalence of Staphylococci were 48.6% (88/181), 47.7% (92/193), 40.7% (103/253), 40.2% (78/194) and 37.2% (67/180) in Assela, Addis Ababa, Bishoftu, Holeta and Adama respectively. The S. aureus was the most frequently isolated species among different samples accounting for 172 (17.2%) followed by S. hyicus 82 (8.2%); S. intermedius 74 (7.4%) and CNS 96 (9.6%). Risk factors analysis revealed that prevalence of Staphylococcus significantly differed with source of sample (P < 0.05) and type of sample (P < 0.05) in central Ethiopia. Prevalence of Staphylococcus were significantly higher (p<0.02) in farm (45.9%) than in abattoir (39.4%). Similarly risk factors analysis for Staphylococcus from udder milk revealed that prevalence significantly differed (P<0.05) with the family size, breed, .income level, herd size and lactation stage. In the antimicrobial resistance trials, out of 428 Staphylococcus species isolates 244 (50.9%) were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility tests. 97.5% (238/244) strains revealed antimicrobial resistance properties to at least one of the antibiotics tested. A large proportion of the isolates were resistant to Penicillin G (10units) (90.2%), Cloxacillin (5μg) (70.9%), and Erythromycin (15μg) (70.9%), Nalidixic Acid (30μg) (59.8%), Cefoxitin (30μg) (53.7%), Vancomycin (30μg) (52.9%) and Nitrifurantoin (50μg) (47.5%). Only a small proportion of the isolates from total sample were resistant to Ciprofloxacin (5μg) (1.6%) and Gentamycin (10μg) (2%). This study revealed that, although the prevalence of Staphylococcus species have no statistically significant difference among geographic region of the area sampled, antimicrobial resistance to the isolates have statistically significant xi difference between them except for Penicillin G, Tetracycline, Streptomycin, Gentamycin and Sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between source and type of samples in determining resistance pattern to each antimicrobial except for Amoxacillin, Vancomycin, Streptomycin and tetracycline. Multidrug resistance was also observed in 89.3% (218/244) of the total tested isolates. The indiscriminate use of those antimicrobial agents might account, at least in part, for such a high resistance. Milk, meat, equipment and hand and nasal of human contain resistant Staphylococcus species posing a potential risk to consumers. Hence, antimicrobial susceptibility should be conducted before treating cattle. As a result, reduction in transfer of resistant Staphylococci strains between humans and animals could possibly be made. The indifferent distribution of the prevalence of Staphylococci over different geographical area is indicators for lack of proper personal, environmental hygiene and sanitation; and absence of difference in animal husbandry practice in all study area. Hence, implement strict hygienic control measures both in abattoir and dairy farm is important in order to guarantee the quality of cattle derivative food products. Key words: Staphylococcus, epidemiology, dairy farm and abattoir, antimicrobial resistance, Ethiopia



Staphylococcu, epidemiology, dairy farm and abattoir, antimicrobial resistanceEthiopia