Design and Manufacture of Laboratory Model for Solar Powered Injera Baking Oven

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Addis Ababa University


Currently millions of people around the world rely on wood as a source of fuel for cooking. Although this situation not only pertains to impoverished rural communities, it is within these communities and in industrializing countries that mostly occurs. The burning of wood in open fires is causing a number of health problems but is also deteriorating for the rural household economy as well as for the local and global environment. Injera is the stable bread in Ethiopia; it is perhaps consumed by almost all Ethiopian people on a daily basis. Biomass fuel can consist of either wood, crop residues, or dried animal dung. Using these energy sources can result in negative effects such as deforestation, environmental pollution, and health problem. Women and children are the main groups exposed to the indoor smoke produced while cooking. The overall aim of this thesis project is to use solar powered injera baking oven, so as to avoid the problems that are caused due to burning of fossil fuels and to assure the environmental sustainability. In this project a laboratory model for solar powered injera baking oven system is designed and manufactured; the laboratory model consists of the oil storage and heating tank, the piping and pumping system, the baking pan assembly, and supporting frame and legs as its main components. The system uses electrical heater to heat the heat transfer oil (shell thermia B) to the required temperature, and then the heated oil is pumped to the baking pan assembly to heat the pan surface and re-circulates in the system using an electrical driven pump. To protect heat loss; ash insulation system for the heat transfer oil gallery, the oil storage and heating tank and fiber glass insulation for the piping lines are used. During the experimental test a temperature of about 215oC on the baking pan surface is achieved and injera is baked on this surface. To increase the heating up time of the pan surface, the pan supporting plate should be a high thermal conductivity material.



Mechanical Engineering