Association between diet and colorectal cancer in selected health facilities in Addis Ababa, a case control study

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Addis Ababa Universty


Background Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second in females. In 2012 an estimated 1.4 million colorectal cancer cases and 693,900 deaths occurred worldwide. According to Addis Ababa cancer registry, the age-standardized rate per 100,000 for colorectal cancer is 8.1 in males and 7.6 in females. It has been estimated that dietary factors account for nearly half of all colorectal cancer cases. Diet and lifestyle factors are key intervention points in primary prevention. In Ethiopia, there have not been previous studies about the dietary patterns of colorectal cancer patients in Ethiopia. Objectives- to identify the association between dietary patterns, nutrient intakes and colorectal cancer in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Method-A matched case control study was conducted in 3 hospitals and 1 higher clinic which have cancer follow up center in Addis Ababa. A total of 88 cases and 264 controls were included in the study. Newly diagnosed cases and for each case 3 controls in the same hospital matched by age, sex and residence were selected. Semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the dietary pattern and to evaluate the dietary intake. we used factor analysis to identify dietary patterns. The data was entered to epi data and transfer to STATA 14.0. Nutrient content of food was calculated using nutrisurvey software. Residual method was used for energy adjustment. conditional logistic regression was used to identify the association of diet and colorectal cancer. Result-Eight dietary patterns were extracted. After adjusting for confounding factors meat pattern which contains fried ox meat, fried sheep meat, and kitfo has significantly associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer(AOR=2.7;95%CI=1.20,6.22). Fish pattern which contains fried fish, tuna, and macchiato (AOR=0.01; 95%CI=0.002, 0.06) has decreased risk of colorectal cancer. There was no significant association between fruit pattern and colorectal cancer. Significant but weak protective association was also found for all macronutrients and fiber after adjusting by residual method. Conclusion and recommendation- Consumption of meat and alcohol drinks increases the risk of colorectal cancer. Whereas fish, dairy products and refined cereals decreases the risk of colorectal cancer. Further studies are recommended by using prospective study design and by addressing the limitations of this study.



diet,colorectal cancer