Push and Pull Factors of Rural-Urban Migration and its Implication on the Place of Origin: The Case of Ankesha Wereda Migrant Street Vendors and Daily Laborers in Addis Ababa

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Addis Ababa University


The primary aim of this study was to examine the significance of push and pull factors contributing for rural-urban migration and its implication on the place of origin as well as the destination among the migrants of Ankesha wereda to Addis Ababa. The study further focused on the analysis of major factors for migration to Addis Ababa; the characteristics of migrants; challenges they face at the destination and positive and negative aspects of migration. In order to carryout this study, both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed. Instruments like structured questionnaire, semi-structured interview, FGD and observation were widely employed. To this end, a total of 90 migrants were selected through purposive snow ball sampling technique for the questionnaire survey. Thus, the data obtained from the participants were analyzed through t-test and descriptive statistics. In addition, qualitative data were collected and analyzed to triangulate the quantitative data in descriptive forms. The result of this study reveals that most of the migrants from Ankesha wereda to Addis Ababa were dominantly young aged 15-25, single male, at the level of primary education and they were from female headed households. The push factor is more causative factor as compared to the pull factor for rural-urban migration and the difference is statistically significant (t=8.151, df=89, p<0.01). The major push factors are identified as landlessness, land shortage and lack of social services like school. Besides, the social networks in Addis Ababa also exacerbate migration. The migrants are involved in street vending and daily labor work at the expense of psychological benefits due to drop-out of their schooling, culture of the society at origin and low success of their migration. They have collected meager amount of money which they invested in their rural origin. The expectation about employment and actual earning of migrants are unmatched. Many of the migrants encountered problems at the initial period of adjustment and during the course of stay. However, they don’t have an interest to return to the rural place of origin. As far as the implication of migration on both areas of origin and destination is concerned, it is found that as a whole migration is less efficient in changing the lives of the migrants’ family at origin; rather, it creates labor burden for some households. Moreover, the findings indicate the existing trend of migration has forced young students to drop-out their study. In addition, it created some negative perception by the local inhabitants holding the view that migrants are perceived to become spoiled. Based on the results, recommendations are made



Geography and Environmental Studies