Current Epidemiological Situation of Bovine Trypanosomosis in Limu Shay Tsetse Controlled Area of Upper Didessa Valley

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Trypanosomosis is one of the most devastating diseases which afflict both people and animals in Africa. The Ethiopian government is placing a great emphasis on tsetse control activities. The control program must fit into the rural development policy of the country and monitoring and impact assessment of the control programs is equally important. The main objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis with regards to changes in tsetse density and to assess the socio-economic impact of tsetse control in Limu Shay tsetse controlled area of the upper Didessa valley. The impact of tsetse control in Limu Shay was assessed by comparison with the tsetse infested (Didessa) area. The study was carried out from October 2003 to March 2004 and comprised of cross sectional study on the disease and its ector tsetse fly questionnaire and collection of the recorded data for socioeconomic impact assessment. The pre alence study was carried out on 810 randomly selected cattle using the dark ground! phase contrast buffy coat technique (BCT). A total of 180 monoconical traps were deployed along the identified localities and suitable tsetse habitats (1300-1525 meters abo e sea level) to determine the mean catch and tsetse apparent densities. A total of 180 family heads were interviewed by using standard questionnaire particularly with questions co ering issues on Ii estock and crop production and together with the socio economic data from secondary sources were used to assess the socio-economic impact of tsetse control. Survey results in the tsetse controlled area showed 7.9% pre alence of trypanosome infection in cattle with a erage packed red cell volume (FCV) of 25%. In the tsetse infested area the pre alence and a erage PCV were 27.16% and 22.85% respecti ely. Similarly comparison of the tsetse infested area with the tsetse infested area showed 71 % reduction in trypanosome pre alence and 9.51 % increase in PCV values. The observed differences were statistically significQ.nt for pre alence (95% CI= 0.1490- 0.202' P< 0.001 and PCV (%) (95% CI= 23.623- 24.2387' P < 0.001). Tsetse fly mean catch between the tsetse controlled (mean=4.03) and the tsetse infested (mean=10.68 areas differed significantly (P< 0.05) with 62.4% reduction in the tsetse apparent density in the controlled area. 0 G. m. submorsitans was found in the tsetse controlled area but the apparent density 1.34 fly per trap per day in the controlled area 2.05 fly per trap per day in the infested area was reduced by 35% for G. tachinoides. The questionnaire survey result indicated that the cal ing rate was increased by 35.3%. The a erage age at first calving (42 months the a erage cal ing interval 20.04 months) and abortion rate (16.1 %) were also reduced by XIII 1l.5% 5.5 month 13.6% 3 months and 39% respecti ely in the controlled area a compared to the tsetse infested area. Mortality rate in the herds of controlled 7.9% area ho\-, ed 2% reduction a compared to the infested 29.1 % area. The differences ob erved benveen the tv 0 area were tatistically significant. Likewi e analysis of the data re ealed an increa e by 0% in average daily milk yield per co 1.67liters an increa e by 120% in a erage lactation yield 350 kg and decrease in the a erage use of trypanocidal drugs treatments of per animal per ear from 7.16 treatment in the infested area to 0.19 in the tsetse ontrolled area. Con, er el there wa a reduction by 40% and 90% for the producti e offtake rate ale and slaughter rate and purchase rate respecti ely in the controlled area a compared to the infe ted area. B comparison with the infested area oxen in the controlled area \.vere 0% and 31 % more efficient in the a erage work hour per day and in the a erage area culti" ated per 0 re pecti el . Anal is of the econdary source data howed that the number of cattle and draught oxen has increased b 323% and b 260% re pecti el 0 er 15 ear ben, een 19 and 2003. The increase in animal traction has in tum brought about change in culti ation practice with ubsequent increase in a erage area ploughed under animal traction b almo t 00% increa e and an a erage area cultivated per hou ehold b 00%. The a erage cultivated land per hou e hold increased b 1 5% a compared to the infe ted area. Be ide the population growth in the controlled area between 19 and 2003 " 'a found to be rapid at .2% annual growth rate. Based on the re ults of the pre ent tud it \-vas concluded that a reduction in trypano orne prevalence in cattle as ociated "',lith reduction In et e densitie and the di appearan e of G. m. submor itan a a re ult of t etse control improyed the ocio-economic activitie of the people in the tudy area.



Bovine, Trypanosomosis. Prevalence, Tsete Fly Apparent, Socio Economic, Upper Didessa Valley .