Extraction and Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystal from Enset /Enset Ventricosum/ for Nano Composite Application

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Addis Ababa University


The reduction of petroleum-based resources and the attendant environmental problems, such as global warming, have stimulated considerable interest in the development of environmentally sustainable materials, which are composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. The aim of these study was extraction and characterization of cellulose nanocrystal from Enset fibers for nanocomposites applications. The extraction of Nano cellulose was performed by Acid hydrolysis with 50°C for 45 minutes using 55%wt. concentrated H2SO4 and 39.68% yield was obtained. The characterization of Nano cellulose was done by using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope(SEM), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (X-RD) and Thermographic analysis(TGA). The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), result shows that reduction and removal of lignin, hemicellulose and amorphous parts which is found in Enset fibers. SEM determine the analysis reveals the structure and arrangement of the fiber bundles inside the raw material to Nano cellulose. The X-RD data showed that the Enset fibers had been transformed from cellulose to Nano cellulose crystal structure which noticeable significant conversion of cellulose. According to in these research, the crystallinity index of cellulose and Nano cellulose was 59.75% and 63.31% respectively and the average crystalize size was obtained at 12.48nm. DLS result showed the average particle size and obtained 109.6 nm with a poly disparity index of 0.079. The Nano cellulose was reinforced in PVA polymer by solvent casting process. The extracted was successfully reinforced into poly (vinyl) alcohol to illustrate the improvement in water absorption capacity, tensile strength, elongation at break. The SEM micrograph PVA-reinforced composites showed uniform distribution and formation of network structure through hydrogen bonding. Different ratios of Nano cellulose loading were used to see the effects of Nano cellulose loading on properties of poly (vinyl) alcohol.



Enset fibers, Acid hydrolysis, Nano cellulose, SEM, X-RD, TGA, FTIR, PVA polymer