Caffeine, alcohol, khat, and tobacco use during pregnancy in Butajira, South Central Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa Universty


Background: The use of substances such as caffeine, alcohol, cigarette, and khat during pregnancy can results in adverse health effects on the fetus. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a daily caffeine intake should not exceed 300 mg. Likewise, pregnant woman should avoid alcohol, khat and tobacco use. However, the magnitude of these substances use among pregnant women is not studied in developing countries such as Ethiopia. Objectives: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of excess daily caffeine consumption and its associated factors, prevalence of alcohol consumption, khat chewing, and tobacco use during pregnancy. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 12-May 15, 2018 among 352 pregnant women. Stratified sampling technique was used to select pregnant women. Two days non-consecutive 24-hour recall was used to assess the self-reported daily caffeine intake. The collected data were compiled, checked, coded and entered using Epi-data version 3.1 software package and exported into Stata 14 for data management and analysis. Central tendency (median) and dispersion (range) were estimated for caffeine data. Prevalence were estimated for excess caffeine intake per day, alcohol consumption, khat chewing, passive tobacco smoking and overall substances use during pregnancy. Multivariate binary logistic regression was run to identify associated factors for excess caffeine intake among pregnant women. Results: A total of 341 pregnant women were interviewed. The median age of pregnant women was 28 (IQR=6). The median daily caffeine intake among pregnant women was 170.5 mg (IQR=135.1) and ranged from 0.0 to 548.9mg per day. About 17.6% (95% CI: 13.9%, 22.0%) of the pregnant women consumed 300 mg and above caffeine per day. About 10.0% (95% CI: 7.2%, 13.7%) of the pregnant women consumed alcohol during current pregnancy. About 35.8% (95% CI: 30.8, 41.0%) of the pregnant women chewed khat during current pregnancy. None of the pregnant women were active tobacco smoker. However, 23.2 % (95% xii CI: 19.0, 28.0%) of pregnant women were passive smokers. The prevalence of at least one substance use among pregnant women was 60.1 % (95% CI: 54.8%, 65.2%). The richest wealth status (AOR=3.66; 95% CI: 1.13, 11.88), and first trimester of pregnancy (AOR=4.04; 95% CI: 1.26, 13.05) were significantly associated factors for increased excessive caffeine consumption per day among pregnant women. Conclusions and Recommendation: In conclusion, the magnitude of substances use such as excess caffeine, khat chewing and passive tobacco smoking were high among pregnant women in Butajira, South Central Ethiopia. Therefore, interventional programs that address caffeine and alcohol consumption, khat chewing and tobacco smoke exposure among pregnant women is wanted.



Substance use, Caffeine consumption, Alcohol consumption, Cigarette smoking, Khat chewing, Pregnancy