Effect of food price elasticity on dietary intake of pregnant women living in butajira HDSS, Ethiopia :almost ideal demand system approach.

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Addis Abeba University


Background: In Sub-Saharan Africa, low body mass index (<18.5 kg/m2) during pregnancy is common showing a prevalence of 20%-39% in Ethiopia. Although pregnancy requires adequate and balanced dietary intake, price increase conveys to shift to less quality and quantity food groups. Globally, a 10% increase in the price of cereals reduced demand for cereals by 6.1% in low-income countries. The highest own-price elasticity occurred for animal products. For the cross price elasticity, a reduction in cereal consumption of 6.1%, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, animal products, fats, oils, and sweets by 4.2%. The study contributes to fill the gap of showing the link between food price change which is nutrition sensitive and dietary intake of pregnant women who are target groups for 1,000 days intervention. Objective: To assess responsiveness of food group consumption due to own and cross price elasticity of food groups among pregnant women living in Butajira HDSS, Ethiopia. Method:- The study design was community based comparative cross-sectional design. It was conducted in Butajira HDSS, Guragae zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ Regional state on ≥24 weeks pregnant women who were selected randomly from a sampling frame obtained from the Health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS). Data were collected from April 27 th , 2017 – June 1 st , 2018. The household food consumption and expenditure survey (HCES) assessed the food consumption and expenditure pattern of 65 food items. Adult Male Equivalent (AME) approach was used to calculate intrahousehold dietary consumption. STATA version 14 was used for analysis. Almost ideal demand system (AIDS) model was used to assess uncompensated own and cross price elasticity of 5 food groups. The price elasticity parameter estimation was adjusted for household size, age and wealth quartile. Result: Two hundred eighty five women who are ≥24 weeks pregnant living in 10 kebeles of Butajira HDSS were eligible for inclusion in the study. The response rate was 98.9%. For the own price elasticity, in Butajira HDSS high price sensitivity occurred for cereals (-1.557), pulses (3.947), animal products (-1.007) and others (-1.379). Tthe greatest sensitivity occured for pulses (-3.947). Similar finding is shown for the urban and rural areas except for animal product (-0.698) showing lower price sensitivity in the urban area. Vegetables and fruits showed lowest price sensitivity in Butajira HDSS and both areas. For the cross price elasticity, in Butajira HDSS, the cross effects are high for pulses, animal products and others substituted by cereals. In both urban and rural areas, the cross effects are high for pulses and animal products substituted by cereals. Conclusion: All food groups respond to price elasticities in both urban and rural areas of Butajira HDSS. While pregnant women require increased intake, in Butajira HDSS high price sensitivity occurred for cereals, pulses, animal products and others. High cross price sensitivity occurred for pulses, animal products and others substituted by cereals. This lowers intake of essential nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, calcium, iron and zinc. Attention needs to be given for food price changes inorder to minimize its effect on pregnant women.



Pregnant women, HCES, AIDS model, Cross price elasticity, Own price elasticity