Adequacy of Iodine Content and Level of Contaminants in Edible Salts Produced In Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


Edible salt is the most commonly used food additive. Therefore, the quality of this important product needs to be certain as it can be a vehicle for a number of contaminants. This study was aimed to investigate the level of iodine, the content of sodium chloride, loss of mass, matter insoluble in water, sulphate, alkalinity, selected heavy metals and metal impurities, which are expected to be contained in edible salt. In order to determine the contents of table salt and common salt were collected from eight producers and re-packers which are located at different parts of the country. The levels of iodine were determined by iodotitration and metal impurities were estimated using FAAS after wet digestion of the salts. The value of iodine obtained for all analyzed samples were found to be within the range of 71.76 ± 8.09-4.24 ± 1.06 mg/kg in which 87.5 % of both common salts and table salts samples were lower than the Ethiopian Standard (ES) specification (60-80 ppm). The content of sodium chloride, Loss of mass, matter insolubility, sulphate, alkalinity and pH ranged between 96.13 ± 0.24-98.98.5 ± 0.29, 0.23 ± 0.05-2.66,0.18 ± 0.00- 2.16 ± 0.38,0.13 ± 0.10-5.15 ± 0.37, 0.12 ± 0.074 - 0.95 ± 0.01,7.85 ± 0.05-8.75 ± 0.02 respectively. The heavy metals Cadmium, Lead and Zinc content of the studied Table salt and Common salt remained lower than the permitted maximum for human consumption as prescribed by ES specification and codex. However, calcium impurities found to be 0.26 ± 0.05, 0.35 ±0.00, 1.63± 0.02, 1.52 ± 0.02,0.61 ± 0.01,0.41 ± 0.11,1.56± 0.52, 0.42 ± 0.02 which indicated that half of out of the four table salts samples meet the requirement set by the ES. Magnesium content were found to be 1.96 ± 0.01, 2.60 ± 0.01, 4.17 ± 0.02, 3.83 ± 0.03, 1.79 ± 0.01, 0.82 ± 0.01, 4.39 ± 0.09and 2.57 ± 0.03, respectively in which only two of the two table salts were below the ES. Iron content was ranged between 0.18 ± 0.00-0.56 ± 0.11, in which half values for iron in both common salts and table salts were lower than the permitted consumption level defined by ES. In general, the salts delivered to the community are poor in their iodine content the quality of both the common and table salts have to be improved through improving method of production and iodization as well. But, are safe with regard to their heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu. Key words: Salt; Iodine; Metal Contaminants; Sodium Chloride; Loss of Mass; Matter Insoluble; Sulphate, Alkalinity; Ethiopian Standard



Salt; Iodine; Metal Contaminants; Sodium Chloride; Loss of Mass; Matter Insoluble; Sulphate, Alkalinity; Ethiopian Standard