Epidmiology and Zoonotic Importance of Bovine Tuberculosis in Selected Sites of Eastern shoa Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University Faculty Of Veterinary Medicine


A. survey was conducted In De bre Zeit and .-\ddis Ababa. from Jo.nu:!ry to October. 1997 in canle and human tuberculosis patients to study thl;! epidemiology or bO\Jne tuberculosis and to assess the role of J! hOlliS in human T8 cases re spectively. The methods applied wefe comparative intradermal tuberculin te st. postmortem diagnosis. cul tural examination. biochemical te:m and questionnaire su rve::v on human TB p:ltients and 'Jlry farm \\"o rkers. A to tal of 788 anim:tls \\ere subjected to the comparatj\e intradermal :uberculin test (C lOT) resulting In 2.3Qo o pOSHl\e and 5.81)'0 doubtful reacWrs. Th ere \\as a slgmricant difference In pre\ alenee between tiums sites ranging fr om -J. .2° 0 to 90.8°0 mcludin.,; the doubtful reactors , I,Z~ test. p<O.OOI). Test for agreement bet\veen ClOT and postmortem as vJell JS y./.VF assa;. and culture revealed moderate agreement in both cases \\ith Kappa cot!JJicienr o f 0. 53 and OA8 respectivel;. . Analysis for risk factors re\·ea.led that cattle under poor management wee more like ly to ha\ e high proportions of reactors (OR=1-l- .9) than those under good management. The associati on between breed and prevalence was also statistically sigmricant (/ test p<O.OOl). Exotic canle were still more likd~ to be affected b:-o tuberculosis even after controlling for the effect of manag1:!mem (OR"'I.H= 2 - . 95°0 Ci=1.6·4.6). Animals with good bocy conditio n \"'e~e I j urnes more likely to react to tuberculin [h::m those with poor condmon. Indicating an association. However. thi s associ at ion was not significant when the effec t of breed was ..... _ . _ ... 1f~,.J 11"\0 _fI 0\ ThC-t' \,\,' '1'0 .,n .. t'lti " t ir'llh· .. ir"l'Iitic::lnt as:iocicuicn rf"IWeen a{!~ and prevalence (p=0 .46). A ro wJ of ~65 sputum. pemoneal tluid. cattle milk and tissue sampl1:!s \\ere cultured resulting in 102 (38.5%) positive isolate s on a prim:lry culture. On subculture 81 ofthes~ isolates were positive for acid f:lS t bacilli and subjected to nI:lcin test out of which 36 1.14.-1- %1 \\ce :-e positi\ e indicating. JI. fUbercuiosis and -1-5 (55 5(101 were negathe indicating .\1. bons or ar:.'picll mycobactenum. ~iacin negative organisms were Isolated from milk f.\7 157 ). sputum (1 -l-,85) and tissue (1 J ~2 ) samples. Of th e 19 isolutes from milk, :1 were niacin positive incicaring the isolo.tion of.\,/ tub<!rc:.dos:s irom raw milk which is th e fi;st repel. :n rh:! country. Results of a questionnaire survey conduc ted on 138 human TS patients indicated that 38A(I,o were with 1:! xtrapulmonary tuberculosis. The proponion of patients with EP TS was signiticantl ~ high in younger age group «1 5 years). In farmers. in potients with close contact to canle. io those \\ho frequently drink r<1\\ milk and in people from th e rural areas (p<Q.OOI In all cases): ho,-\e\-er. there \\as no signiticant association be t'..\e en type of TB and sex (p=O .2-1- ). A five year hospital data from Debre Zeit am! ALERT hospitals re\eaJed th2t there \\as SIgnificantly higher proportion of male patients than femal es (p<O.OOl) and more than 70% of the patients " 'e re in the acti\e age group ( 15 --l-5 years). In ALERT hospitJI 19 .7% of the TS patients were also concurrently test positive for HI V. In conclusion. incidence of bovine tuberculosis is increasing gradually in the livestock population pamcularly in the int e nsified dairy farms . this increment tog ether \\ith the habit of " iii the community to consume raw milk and meat may necessitate to develop an appropriate and feasible camral measure for bo\·ine tuberculosis in cattle and prevention of its zoonotic importance in Ethiopia.



Eastern shoa Ethiopia