Assessment of Quality and Safety of Super Cereal-Corn Soya Blend (Sc-Csb) Processed at Factory Level in Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


Super-cereal-Corn Soy Blend (CSB) is a cooked blend of milled, heat-treated corn and soybean and fortified with a vitamin and mineral premix. The ingredients are partially cooked through either extrusion or roasting. CSB is the most widely used foods in supplementary feeding programs as it is naturally wholesome blended food, nutritious and precooked for ease in use and handling. During pre and post-harvesting of the raw materials and processing of the CSB in the industries, hygiene and sanitation procedure should be followed in order to prevent different contaminations. Moreover the super cereal- corn-soya blend should be free from any hazardous contamination like aflatoxins and heavy metals since infants do not have the capacity to resist such kind hazards. Thus, this study was conducted to examine the quality and safety of CSB flour collected from four Ethiopian SC-CSB manufacturing factories based on their cooking processing methods (two extrusion and two roasting). Proximate compositions, minerals (Fe, K, and Ca), Vitamin A, physicochemical and microbiological composition were analyzed by official methods of AOAC, ICP-OES, High Performance Liquid Chromatography with DAD detector (HPLC/DAD) methods used, respectively. Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2 were determined by immuno-affinity column cleanup and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. identification, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), linearity, precession, accuracy and recovery tests were done. Out of four SC-CSB factories, proximate composition (crude fiber) for each cooking methods were in the range of 2.34 g/100g to 3.75 g/100g. Mineral contents (Iron) of SC-CSB for all cooking method were in the range of 10.2 mg/100g to 13.4 mg/100g. Vitamin A contents for each factory were above the expected range between 21.8 mg/100g to 40.9 mg/100g. Physicochemical properties (peroxide value and urease index) for all cooking methods were not detected. Three of them were positive with a range of aflatoxin B1 between 2.49 and 4.66μg/l and one factory sample was less than Limit of Detection. Total aflatoxin level for each sample was detected with a range of 6.47 to 14.13μg/l. Total Aerobic Plate count/gm, yeast and molds and total Coliforms of sample for roasting cooking processing have positive (1.6 x 104 cfu/gm and 4.0 x 103 cfu/gm), 1.77 x 103 cfu/gm and 1.54 x 103 cfu/gm and (4.3 x 101 confirmed coliforms/gm and 3.9 x 101 confirmed coliforms/gm) respectively. It can be concluded that, the vitamin A result showed that all factories have used a higher concentration of Vitamin A fortificant during the processing of SC-CSB. Samples taken from factories using roasting cooking method were highly contaminated with total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1 which is out of the range of maximum allowable limit according to CES, EU, and WFP standard. The super cereal corn soya blend manufacturing companies should have a system of checking the risk of containment of aflatoxin and other contaminant factors starting from the raw material selection and also via out the process. The concerned stakeholders need to make sure that the products are free of aflatoxin before the products delivered to consumers.



Aflatoxin, Corn Soy Blend Flour, Fortification, Immuno-affinity Cleanup, Vitamin