Job Satisfaction and its Determining Factors Among Journalists Working in Addis Ababa and Federal Mass Media Agencies

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Addis Ababa University


The purpose of the study was to examine the level of job-satisfaction and its determining factors among journalists working in Addis Ababa and Federal mass media agencies. Accordingly, the study questions were targeted to answer the overall level of job-satisfaction in general and across media agencies as perceived by the journalists themselves (perceived); as measured indirectly by satisfaction levels on particular work-related factors (interpolated); and the combined of the above two (aggregate). Furthermore, the study attempted to find out if there exists a statistically significant variation across demographic variables and association between job-satisfaction and work-related factors. The study population included journalists and editors drawn from four media agencies, vis., E.B.C, A.A.M.M.A, E.N.A, & E.P.A. Stratified cluster systematic random sampling method was employed to sample the respondents from these agencies after the sample size was determined statistically to ensure equal and proportional probability across media agencies and sexes. The research design used was mixed research method and to be specific, sequential exploratory research design since no research was available to guide the possible sub-constructs that adequately define and capture the construct – job-satisfaction in the Ethiopian context. The data obtained through questionnaire was analyzed using descriptive (frequency, percentages, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA, and, Pearson product moment multiple regression). Findings on all the three measures of job- satisfaction, i.e., ‘perceived job-satisfaction’, ‘interpolated job-satisfaction’ and ‘aggregate job- satisfaction’, respectively, have indicated that the majority (72%), (66.0%), and (66.0%) of the journalists lack job-satisfaction. Data further have shown that there is statistically significant variation across agencies on all the three measures of job-satisfaction have further indicated that. Analysis of data across demographic variables yielded that job-satisfaction show statistically significant variation across most variables, i.e., sex, age groups, educational level, work experience as journalists, marital status, pay or monthly salary. Hence, measured on a 0 to 10 scale higher level of aggregate job-satisfaction was witnessed among older journalists compared to younger cohorts, i.e., 41-50 years (M = 5.7590); 31-40 years (M = 5.2156) ; and 20-30 years (M = 4.5939); female (M = 5.23) male (M = 4.84); those with, relatively, more working experience, i.e., 11-15 years (M = 5.4623); 6-10 years (M = 5.4593) ; and 1-5 years (M = 4.6407); married (M = 5.14) compared to single (M = 4.57); those with, relatively, higher salary, i.e., Birr 5500-7000 (M = 5.6553); Birr 4000-5500 (M = 5.0888); Birr 2500-4000 (M = 4.6002); and Birr 1000-2500 (M = 4.0592). Data responding to the final study question have shown that there is statistically significant association between levels of job-satisfaction and work-related factors, accordingly, positive relationships were found out between levels of satisfaction between pay or monthly salary (r = .752 ), fringe benefit (r = .713), logistic services (r = .710), operational condition (r = .479), Communication (r = .580), Co- worker (r = .582), Supervisor (r = .685), Promotion (r = .744), Contingent reward (r = .820), and finally, Nature of work (r = .752). Finally, the study, in an attempt to find out the predicting power of the work-related factors has found out that contingent reward (beta = .820, P<.01) is the most significant predictor of the criterion measure, that is, the journalists’ level of job-satisfaction, followed by Nature of Work (beta = .416, P<.01), Promotion (beta = .245, P<.01), Logistic Service (beta = .185, P<.01), Operational Conditioning (beta = .114, P<.01), Supervision (beta = .175, P<.01), Fringe Benefit (beta = .165, P<.01), and Communication (beta = .078, P<.01). The study concluded that overall level of job-satisfaction among Ethiopian journalists is low, however, the statistically significant variation across agencies suggests that there are some lessons that can be learnt to enhance job-satisfaction. Furthermore, it was concluded that eight work-related factors together explain the 86.4% of the variation in job-satisfaction, i.e., contingent reward (67.2%); nature of work (11.3%); promotion (2.5%); logistic service (1.8); supervision (1.1%); operational conditions (1.0%); fringe benefit (0.8); communication (0.4) which shows that improvement in these factors can effectively improve the level of job-satisfaction



Federal mass, Media agencies