Parenting Style in Amhara Region: Development and Validation of Parenting Style Scale and Investigation of Adolescents’ Self-esteem, Identity Style and Psychological Wellbeing (Doctoral Dissertation)

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Addis Ababa University


The purpose of this research was to develop and validate Adolescents’ Perceived Parenting Style (PPSS) scale, and investigation of adolescents’ self-esteem, identity style and psychological wellbeing using two subsequent studies. The first study was designed to develop an instrument for measuring parenting style in the context of Amhara region . For this study, an exploratory sequential mixed methods research design was employed to explore the types of parenting styles and their indicators qualitatively, then followed by quantitative method to examine the psychometric properties of the scale. Samples were drawn from government general secondary and preparatory school students in Amhara region using simple random sampling and stratified random sampling based on students’ sex and grade level as strata. For this study, both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Data for qualitative analysis were gathered form adolescent informants using focus group discussion, whereas data for quantitative analysis were gathered from the expert judges and school adolescents. From school adolescents, data were collected twice, one for preliminary analyses such as item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability analysis based on the responses of 436 participants (Male = 216; Female = 220), and the other for examining confirmatory factor analysis as well as convergent and discriminant validity analysis using the responses of 314 participants (Male = 156; Female = 158) from the four zonal towns (i.e., Debre Birhan, Finot-selam, Debre Tabor, Bahir Dar) in the region. The final results revealed that a 4-factor solution (Reasonable, Decent, Pampering & Autocrat) with a 26-item was identified, and then confirmed with good fit indices using LInear Structural RELations (LISREL 8.80 version). Moreover, acceptable convergent and discriminant validity evidence were found. Thus, it would be suffice to say that APPS scale measures what it purports to measure. The second study was designed to investigate the relations of parenting styles with psychological wellbeing, self-esteem, and identity style. In addition, the study focused on examining the mediating roles of self-esteem and identity style on the relationship between parenting style and psychological wellbeing. Furthermore, parenting style differences due to demographic variables (sex, family structure & number of siblings) was another concern of the study. With the same procedure in study one, data were collected from 411 participants (Male = 211; Female = 200) for the main study and the analyses were made using mainly multiple regression, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and path analysis. The results indicated that adolescents who perceived their parents as decent and reasonable showed better off in their self-esteem, identity style and psychological wellbeing. Moreover, self-esteem, informational identity style and normative identity style were partially mediated between parenting styles and psychological wellbeing. Furthermore, significant differences in adolescents’ perceived parenting styles were observed due to the differences in their sex, family structure and number of sibling. Finally, based on the findings, some practical and theoretical implications, limitations and directions for future research were addressed



Psychological wellbeing