Assessment of Soil Erosion and Its Effects on Agricultural Productivity: The Case of Machackel Woreda, East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


Soil Erosion has been a serious problem in Ethiopia and Its impediment on economic development persists more than three decades. This thesis studies to quantify the impact of soil erosion on crop yields using the results of a Machakel woreda, East Gojjam Zone Ketech watershed catchment. The research is to assess the extent of soil erosion and its effect on agricultural productivity, the perception and knowledge of people on soil erosion and gully. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Quantitative data was collected from satellite images and household surveying and qualitative data collected from focus group discussion, key informant interview, and field observation. Descriptive, inferential, and econometric were employed for quantitative analysis while description, narration and content analysis were engaged for qualitative analysis. The findings of the study deal with the amount of average annual soil loss by using the RUSLE model used in Arc GIS images converted to quantitatively measurement of Ketech watershed 612, 561.3 t. yr‾¹. In the study of the gully erosion, AGERTIM (assessment of gully erosion rates through interview and measurement) has been developed. It comprises physical field measurement of the current volume and monitoring semi-structured interview techniques: womberet, Ketech, shembeqogelebet (a) and (b):Womberet, gully started around 1979, gradual change from cropland which started from fox digging small holes and grew into gully which increases rapidly and the average gully erosion rate in 33 years was found to be 168,921 m²/yr, the amount of soil loss.,Ketech gully incision in 1984, small rill canals to grown gully through farming practice formulates in two adjacent croplands average gully volume erosion rates in 29 years was 9093 m²/yr, the total soil loss estimated and the total soil loss of the other two-volume of gully erosion rate is estimated to be 3,500 m²/yr. The perception of farmers to pertain the vulnerability of livelihood to consider food security faces to challenge soil erosion demarcates different reasons through the nature of demographic, level socioeconomic, institutional and topographic factors significantly related with soil erosion was established determinants (sex, education, landholding size, experience, access to training, credit access, soil conservation, and extension service and family size) logit statistically significant association of analysis variables employed to determine for farmers‗ perception showed that landholding size, condition of education and farmers experience were significant factors of determining farmers` perception of soil erosion in the study area. To explain in the Agro-ecological zone, high land areas assure to field observation sever rill erosion, sheet and gully erosion comparatively aggravate in high land areas, high rainfall/high run-off and steep slope (>0.5%) down-land based on the nature of soil type is luvisols of high possibility of eroded(0.35), its severity increase from time to time. so, community integrated participation soil conservation practice is the priority concern.



soil erosion, gully erosion, agricultural production, RUSLE, GIS, soil water conservation.