Characterization of Dermatophytes and Non-dermatophytes Isolated from Patient with Onychomycosis, Attending at Rank Dermatology Clinic, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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Addis Abeba University


Background: Onychomycosis a chronic nail infection caused by dermatophyte, yeast, and non- dermatophyte molds, is one of the most usual forms of people disease, Onychomycosis in adults contribute around 50% of wholly nail illnesses. Nail mycoses give until 2-9% global and its occurrence is regularly growing mainly in poor state. Even though Onychomycosis is minor illness, it affects patient psychology and also it is expensive disease by means of absenteeism from job due to seeking medication and also it has job discomfort. Regardless of recent advanced in the development of anti-fungal drugs and therap y Onychomycosis is still difficult to treat conventional treatments often fail and it has been suggested that many reasons such as age, peripheral vascular disease, nail growth, poor drug penetration into the nail lesions and fungal growth patterns adversely affect clinical result. Objective: This research was designed to assess the prevalence of Onychomycosis and spectrum of fungal etiologic agent’s associate with the nail mycosis among patients attending at Rank dermatologic clinic from February-July 2019 G.C Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Material and methods: The present study was a single institutional cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 200 patients visiting dermatology clinic from Feb 2019 to July 2019 at Rank dermatology clinic in Addis Ababa. Nail scrapings that was collected from study participants following standard procedure. A small amount nail scraps specimen was put on a slide then added droplet of 20% KOH and stay for a minimum of 5 minutes, then detection was performed by direct microscope for the positive or negative of fungal pathogen. The rest of nail scraped of ev ery specimen was inoculated on culture media. At same time culture processed for every positive or negative result of detection. Every nail scraps specimen was inoculated on two petredishe Mycosel agar and Sabouraud’s dextrose agar prepare with antimicrobial antibiotics but not added cycloheximide. All culture media performed based on the manufacture’s guide and inoculated media stay at room temperature (25-30 C 0) aerobically and put the inoculated plate by inverted part up to six weeks. The processed media which incubate in the incubator were checked 3 times per week for the presence or absence of any growth. Culture growth supposed for dermatophytes were sub-cultured onto potato dextrose agar to generate pure isolate. Molds were found by investigative macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Microscopic detection of Molds was done by small amount from growth culture putting to new slide and added lactophenol cotton blue reagent then cover by a cover slip and examined by microscope. Yeast investigation of C. albicans by performed by germ tube production. Data was evaluated by performing excel and SPSS version 20 software. Results: Out of 200 nail scrap samples processed, 161(80.5%) yielded significant Onychomycosis of which 106(65.8) obtained from female patients and 55(34.2%) were from male patients. The ages of research participant were from 2 to 72 year. From 200 study participant, 61(30.5%) fungal element was detected by direct microscopy whereas 161(80.5%) nail scraps specimen was isolated by culture and Six specimens become negative for culture whereas positive by KOH detection. Non dermatophyte were the main pathogen that contribute 99(61.5 %) after that mixed pathogen in 26 (16.1%) patient and then dermatophytes were identified in 22(13.7%) next by yeasts that contributed 14(8.7%) of the isolates. Aspergillus fumigatus was the predominate fungal pathogen identified from non-dermatophytes and from dermatophyte, T.mentagrophyte was the leading fungal pathogen and also Candida albican was the chief fungi identify from yeast. Conclusion: The prevalence Onychomycosis was high, that was 161/200 (80.5%). However non- dermatophytes were the most common causative agents for Onychomycosis, dermatophyte and yeasts fungi also representing the reason for Onychomycosis are diverse. Clinical diagnosis, direct microscopy and culture isolate are essential for appropriate analysis. These highlight the need for nationwide study on the spectrum.



Dermatophytes , non-dermatophytes,Onychomycosis