Bacterial profile, antimicrobial Sensitivity pattern and outcome of blood stream infection among febrile patients at Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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Addis Abeba University


Abstract: Background: Throughout the world infectious disease like bloodstream infection become a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The excessive and irrational use of antibiotics has led to an increase in the multidrug-resistant and thus worsened the condition. Objective: To determine Bacterial profile, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of blood stream isolates, and mortality of febrile patients admitted at Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Methods: A cross-sectional and prospective observational study was performed in 198 febrile patients at Zewditu Memorial hospital from May to Dec, 2019. Demographic and clinical data were collected by interviewing patients, reviewing medical records and outcome was followed until their discharge or death. Venous blood was collected aseptically into TSB, incubated at 35 +2°C and checked for sign of bacterial growth. Bottles which showed signs of growth were further sub-culturedon chocolate agar, blood agar,macconkey agar. Bacterial isolates were identified by colony morphology, gram staining reaction, and biochemical. Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique was used to test Antibiotic susceptibility. Multiple Logistic regression analysis was used to see the association between variablesusing SPSS software version 20. Results: A total of 198 blood cultureswere performed fromfebrile inpatients of ZMH of those 93(47%) were females and 105(53%) were males with the age range of 1 day to 8 years. From the total 43(21.7%) showed bacterial growth. The gram positive and negative bacteria accounted for 69.7% (30/43) and 30.3 %( 13/43)respectively. The commonest gram positive organisms were S.aureus 20 (66.66%).Among gram negative isolates the most predominate organisms were K.pneumonia 6(46.1%). For gram positive bacteria Penicillin and Trimethoprimsulphamethoxazole showed highest resistance andComplete Sensitivity were seen for Vancomycin in all the isolate.Relatively 80(%) of gram negative isolates expressed susceptibility towards Amikacin andhighest resistancewere seen in Trimethoprim- sulphamethoxazole. Mortality among patients with positive culture was 51.1% (22/43), which was higher than mortality recorded for patients with negative blood culture 14.8% (23/155). Conclusion: In this study high prevalence of septicemia and greater resistances of antibiotic which increase the mortality risk three fold was found in the hospital settings. Therefore special attention has to be given to infection prevention control and antibiotic prescription policy



Blood stream infection, bacterial isolate, drug resistance, Mortality