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An epidemiological study of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out from September 2007 to March 2008 in Goro and Ameya-Kota districts of Southwest Shoa Zone, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of the disease and associated risk factors, evaluate the apparent densities and distributions of tsetse and other biting flies and to know the community awareness concerning the disease and control method in the study area. The study methodology comprises seasonal cross-sectional studies in late rainy and dry seasons in 2007/2008 by using parasitological, entomological and questionnaire surveys. A total of 1200 animals, 600 in the late rainy and 600 in the dry seasons, were examined and the prevalence of trypanosomosis was found to be 33.5% and 17.83% in the late rainy and dry seasons, respectively, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between seasons. The mean PCV values of the parasitaemic and aparasitaemic animals during the late rainy season were 20.19% and 26.75% while during the dry season 18.75% and 23.97% respectively. The entomological survey showed that G.pallidipes, G.m.submorsitans and G.f.fuscipes were prevalent tsetse species along with other biting flies (tabanids and muscids) in the study area. The apparent densities of tsetse flies were statistically significantly different (p<0.05) between the late rainy season (1.05 fly/trap/day, 0.26 fly/trap/day, 1.56 fly/trap/day) and the dry season (0.56 fly/trap/day, 0.11 fly/trap/day 0.59 fly/trap/day) for G. pallidipes, G. morsitans submorsitans, G.fuscipes fuscipes, respectively. The overall apparent densities of tsetse flies were found to be 2.87 fly/trap/day (95% CI= 1.04-5.77%) and 1.26 flay/tap/day (95% CI= 1.17-2.07%) in late rainy and dry seasons, respectively. G.f.fuscipes and G.pallidipes appears to be dominant during the course of the study period, whereas lower catch was observed for G.m.submorsitans than G.pallidipes and G.f.fuscipes. The proportion of female tsetse flies caught was higher in both seasons. G.pallidipes was considered to be active transmitter of the disease compared to G.m.submorsitans and G.f.fuscipes. Also the apparent densities of other biting flies were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the late rainy season (1.49 fly/trap/day, 18.66 fly/trap/day) than the dry season (0.77 fly/trap/day, 15.04 fly/trap/day) for tabanids and muscids, respectively. The overall apparent densities of biting flies were found to be 20.15 fly/trap/day (95% CI= 14.23-26.03%), and 15.81 fly/trap/day (95% CI= 10.86-20.75%) in late rainy and dry seasons, respectively. The questionnaire survey revealed that trypanosomosis is the most economically X important disease affecting cattle in Goro and Ameya-Kota sites of the study area. All of the interviewed farmers indicated that bovine trypanosomosis ranks first as the major animal health constraint impairing agricultural development. Also they suggested that the occurrence of trypanosomosis was higher in the late rainy season than the dry season. Most of the curative and preventive trypanocidal drugs in the study area were misused by drug smugglers and non professionals. Hence, trypanosomosis is the most important challenge for agricultural activity and animal production in Goro and Ameya-Kota districts, and the situation is getting worse as the control and prevention of trypanosomosis is facing a lack of vector control activities in the area.



Epidemiology, bovine, trypanosomosis, Glossina pallidipes, G.m.submorsitans