Prevalence of Diarrheal Disease Among Hiv- Patients from Debre Markos Referal Hospital, Debre Markos

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Addis Ababa University


Diarrhea disease is defined as passage of three or more loss of watery stool in 24 hours period. It is caused by both opportunistic and non-opportunistic parasites. Diarrhea can affect all people all over the world. However, a lot of people in low-income countries are affected due to lack of sanitation, contaminated food and drinks. Diarrhea has been aggravated due to human immunodeficiency virus infection. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of diarrhea and detected pathogens in human immune deficiency infected patients. Using purposive and random sampling 384 study subjects were recruited, of which 127 were diarrheal-patients..The participants were selected each day by simple random sampling when they attended in Antiretroviral therapy clinic of the hospital. The dependent variable was measured in terms of diarrhea at the time of clinical examination. Stool samples were collected from all 127 dirrheal patients immediately after they were examined by the physician in the clinic and examined by direct microscopy by the researcher and pre-oriented laboratory technicians for type of diarrhea and pathogens to be identified. The number of females and males were almost equal, 68 and 59 respectively. 90 of them were from urban and 37 of them were from rural area of both sexes. Other data were collected through semi-structured questionnaire and interview and by trained oriented data collectors with the support of the researcher from January,2016 up to end of April,2016. All participants were recruited by their identification card and accordingly were given the questionnaire to fill and were interviewed at the same time. The major pathogens of diarrhea detected from cases were E. histolytica/dipar 32.3 %, Taenia spp., 23.6%, and Bacteria spp.17.32 %. In chi-square analysis, the risk factors associated with diarrhea, such as low level of education /OR=2,at 95% level of confidence/ economic status, irregular hand washing before meal (OR=4.7 at 95% level of confidence ), irregular hand washing after toilet (OR =2,at 95% level of confidence), use stored cooked food for later use (OR=8.9,at 95% level of confidence), eating raw meat and vegetable (OR=8.5, at 95 % level of confidence), lack of enough food, untreated water, not knowing of activities exposing for diarrhea and preventive methods/OR=3.1&2 at 95% level of confidence), as well as low CD4-counts/ μl were associated as risk factors for diarrhea on diarrheal- patients in Debre Markos Referral Hospital. Key words: Diarrhea, pathogens, risk factors



Diarrhea, Pathogens, Risk Factors