Identification of Risk Factors For Anemia on Third Trimester Pregnant Women West Showa Zone, Ambo, Ethiopia

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Addis Ababa University


Anemia is a widespread condition leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Iron deficiency is often expected to be the cause and thus routine Iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), little or no studies have looked at the etiology of anemia in Ethiopia. The role of other micronutrient deficiencies such as folic acid, vitamin B12, as well as infections in the etiology of anemia remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the determinants of anemia among third trimester pregnant women (n=208) attending ante-natal care (ANC) in Ambo, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was carried out and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather socio-demographic, obstetric and nutritional information. Blood samples of 208 mothers were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb) and blood samples of 147 mothers for serum iron, serum ferritin (SF), transferrin, folate, cobalamin (Vit B12), C-reactive protein (CRP) and α-1-glycoprotein (AGP) levels. Of the women, 23% had mild (10-10.9g/dl) and 36% had moderate (7-9.9g/dl) anemia. Iron deficiency as assessed by serum iron level of <0.33mg/l was 19%, 26.5% had depleted iron store (SF<15ng/ml), 21.8% and 13.6% had folate and cobalamin deficiencies, respectively. Median iron and folate levels were significantly different among anemic and non anemic pregnant women (P<0.05). The women who were not using iron-folate supplement and were consuming tea or coffee immediately after meal had a 2.9 and 1.6 times higher risk of developing anemia, respectively. Consumption of flesh foods (P=0.02) and dairy products (P=0.04) were significantly associated with improved hemoglobin status. Consumption of tea, coffee, not taking IFA supplementation and dairy and flesh foods are the main contributors of anemia during pregnancy. Efforts to improve the accessibility and efficiency of the routine IFA supplementation should be exerted. Nutrition education to pregnant women should promote the consumption of dairy and flesh foods during pregnancy while discouraging the consumption of tea and coffee.



Food and Nutritionl Science